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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

Maintaining an Amazon RDS DB Instance

Periodically, Amazon RDS performs maintenance on Amazon RDS resources. Maintenance most often involves updates to the DB instance's or DB cluster's underlying operating system (OS) or database engine version. Updates to the operating system most often occur for security issues and should be done as soon as possible.

Maintenance items require that Amazon RDS take your DB instance or DB cluster offline for a short time. Maintenance that requires a resource to be offline include scale compute operations, which generally take only a few minutes from start to finish, and required operating system or database patching. Required patching is automatically scheduled only for patches that are related to security and instance reliability. Such patching occurs infrequently (typically once every few months) and seldom requires more than a fraction of your maintenance window.

DB instances are not automatically backed up when an OS update is applied, so you should back up your DB instances before you apply an update.

You can view whether a maintenance update is available for your DB instance or DB cluster by using the RDS console, the AWS CLI, or the Amazon RDS API. If an update is available, it is indicated by the word Available or Required in the Maintenance column for the DB instance or DB cluster on the Amazon RDS console, as shown following:


            Offline patch available

If an update is available, you can take one of the actions.

  • Defer the maintenance items.

  • Apply the maintenance items immediately.

  • Schedule the maintenance items to start during your next maintenance window.

  • Take no action.

Note

Certain OS updates are marked as Required. If you defer a required update, you receive a notice from Amazon RDS indicating when the update will be performed on your DB instance or DB cluster. Other updates are Available. You can defer these updates indefinitely.

The maintenance window determines when pending operations start, but does not limit the total execution time of these operations. Maintenance operations are not guaranteed to finish before the maintenance window ends, and can continue beyond the specified end time. For more information, see The Amazon RDS Maintenance Window.

Applying Updates for a DB Instance or DB Cluster

With Amazon RDS, you can choose when to apply maintenance operations. You can decide when Amazon RDS applies updates by using the RDS console, AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or RDS API.

Use the procedures in this topic to immediately upgrade or schedule an upgrade for your DB instance. For more information, see Maintaining an Amazon RDS DB Instance.

AWS Management Console

To manage an update for a DB instance or DB cluster

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances to manage updates for a DB instance, or Clusters to manage updates for an Aurora DB cluster.

  3. Select the check box for the DB instance or DB cluster that has a required update.

  4. Choose Instance actions for a DB instance, or Actions for a DB cluster, and then choose one of the following:

    • Upgrade now

    • Upgrade at next window

      Note

      If you choose Upgrade at next window and later want to delay the update, you can select Defer upgrade.

CLI

To apply a pending update to a DB instance or DB cluster, use the apply-pending-maintenance-action AWS CLI command.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds apply-pending-maintenance-action \ --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db \ --apply-action system-update \ --opt-in-type immediate

For Windows:

aws rds apply-pending-maintenance-action ^ --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db ^ --apply-action system-update ^ --opt-in-type immediate

To return a list of resources that have at least one pending update, use the describe-pending-maintenance-actions AWS CLI command.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions \ --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db

For Windows:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions ^ --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db

You can also return a list of resources for a DB instance or DB cluster by specifying the --filters parameter of the describe-pending-maintenance-actions AWS CLI command. The format for the --filters command is Name=filter-name,Value=resource-id,....

The following are the accepted values for the Name parameter of a filter:

  • db-instance-id – Accepts a list of DB instance identifiers or Amazon Resource Names (ARNs). The returned list only includes pending maintenance actions for the DB instances identified by these identifiers or ARNs.

  • db-cluster-id – Accepts a list of DB cluster identifiers or ARNs. The returned list only includes pending maintenance actions for the DB clusters identified by these identifiers or ARNs.

For example, the following example returns the pending maintenance actions for the sample-cluster1 and sample-cluster2 DB clusters.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions \ --filters Name=db-cluster-id,Values=sample-cluster1,sample-cluster2

For Windows:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions ^ --filters Name=db-cluster-id,Values=sample-cluster1,sample-cluster2

API

To apply an update to a DB instance or DB cluster, call the Amazon RDS API ApplyPendingMaintenanceAction action.

To return a list of resources that have at least one pending update, call the Amazon RDS API DescribePendingMaintenanceActions action.

Maintenance for Multi-AZ Deployments

Running a DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment can further reduce the impact of a maintenance event, because Amazon RDS will apply operating system updates by following these steps:

  1. Perform maintenance on the standby.

  2. Promote the standby to primary.

  3. Perform maintenance on the old primary, which becomes the new standby.

When you modify the database engine for your DB instance in a Multi-AZ deployment, then Amazon RDS upgrades both the primary and secondary DB instances at the same time. In this case, the database engine for the entire Multi-AZ deployment is shut down during the upgrade.

For more information on Multi-AZ deployments, see High Availability (Multi-AZ).

An Amazon Aurora DB cluster spans multiple Availability Zones (AZs) by default and maintenance is performed on all instances in an Aurora DB cluster during the cluster maintenance window.

The Amazon RDS Maintenance Window

Every DB instance and DB cluster has a weekly maintenance window during which any system changes are applied. You can think of the maintenance window as an opportunity to control when modifications and software patching occur, in the event either are requested or required. If a maintenance event is scheduled for a given week, it is initiated during the 30-minute maintenance window you identify. Most maintenance events also complete during the 30-minute maintenance window, although larger maintenance events may take more than 30 minutes to complete.

The 30-minute maintenance window is selected at random from an 8-hour block of time per region. If you don't specify a preferred maintenance window when you create the DB instance or DB cluster, then Amazon RDS assigns a 30-minute maintenance window on a randomly selected day of the week.

RDS will consume some of the resources on your DB instance or DB cluster while maintenance is being applied. You might observe a minimal effect on performance. For a DB instance, on rare occasions, a Multi-AZ failover might be required for a maintenance update to complete.

Following, you can find the time blocks for each region from which default maintenance windows are assigned.

Region Time Block
US West (Oregon) Region 06:00–14:00 UTC
US West (N. California) Region 06:00–14:00 UTC
US East (Ohio) Region 03:00–11:00 UTC
US East (N. Virginia) Region 03:00–11:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region 17:30–01:30 UTC
Asia Pacific (Seoul) Region 13:00–21:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region 14:00–22:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region 12:00–20:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region 13:00–21:00 UTC
Canada (Central) Region 03:00–11:00 UTC
EU (Frankfurt) Region 23:00–07:00 UTC
EU (Ireland) Region 22:00–06:00 UTC
EU (London) Region 22:00–06:00 UTC
South America (São Paulo) Region 00:00–08:00 UTC
AWS GovCloud (US) 06:00–14:00 UTC

Adjusting the Preferred DB Instance Maintenance Window

The maintenance window should fall at the time of lowest usage and thus might need modification from time to time. Your DB instance will only be unavailable during this time if the system changes, such as a scale storage operation or a change in DB instance class, are being applied and require an outage, and only for the minimum amount of time required to make the necessary changes.

Note

For upgrades to the database engine, Amazon Aurora manages the preferred maintenance window for a DB cluster and not individual instances. For information on adjusting the maintenance window for Aurora, see Adjusting the Preferred DB Cluster Maintenance Window.

In the following example, you adjust the preferred maintenance window for a DB instance.

For the purpose of this example, we assume that the DB instance named mydbinstance exists and has a preferred maintenance window of "Sun:05:00-Sun:06:00" UTC.

AWS Management Console

To adjust the preferred maintenance window

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances, and then select the DB instance that you want to modify.

  3. Choose Instance actions, and then choose Modify. The Modify DB Instance page appears.

  4. In the Maintenance section, update the maintenance window.

    Note

    The maintenance window and the backup window for the DB instance cannot overlap. If you enter a value for the maintenance window that overlaps the backup window, an error message appears.

  5. Choose Continue.

    On the confirmation page, review your changes.

  6. To apply the changes to the maintenance window immediately, select Apply immediately.

  7. Choose Modify DB Instance to save your changes.

    Alternatively, choose Back to edit your changes, or choose Cancel to cancel your changes.

CLI

To adjust the preferred maintenance window, use the AWS CLI modify-db-instance command with the following parameters:

  • --db-instance-identifier

  • --preferred-maintenance-window

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds modify-db-instance \ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance \ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

For Windows:

aws rds modify-db-instance ^ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance ^ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

API

To adjust the preferred maintenance window, use the Amazon RDS API ModifyDBInstance action with the following parameters:

  • DBInstanceIdentifier = mydbinstance

  • PreferredMaintenanceWindow = Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ ?Action=ModifyDBInstance &DBInstanceIdentifier=mydbinstance &PreferredMaintenanceWindow=Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30 &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &SignatureVersion=4 &Version=2014-09-01 &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20140425/us-east-1/rds/aws4_request &X-Amz-Date=20140425T192732Z &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date &X-Amz-Signature=1dc9dd716f4855e9bdf188c70f1cf9f6251b070b68b81103b59ec70c3e7854b3

Adjusting the Preferred DB Cluster Maintenance Window

The Aurora DB cluster maintenance window should fall at the time of lowest usage and thus might need modification from time to time. Your DB cluster is unavailable during this time only if the updates that are being applied require an outage. The outage is for the minimum amount of time required to make the necessary updates.

AWS Management Console

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. Choose Clusters on the left of the console.

  3. Choose the DB cluster for which you want to change the maintenance window.

  4. From Actions, choose Modify cluster.

  5. In the Maintenance section, update the maintenance window.

  6. Choose Continue.

    On the confirmation page, review your changes.

  7. To apply the changes to the maintenance window immediately, select Apply immediately.

  8. Choose Modify cluster to save your changes.

    Alternatively, choose Back to edit your changes, or choose Cancel to cancel your changes.

CLI

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window, use the AWS CLI modify-db-cluster command with the following parameters:

  • --db-cluster-identifier

  • --preferred-maintenance-window

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds modify-db-cluster \ --db-cluster-identifier my-cluster \ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

For Windows:

aws rds modify-db-cluster ^ --db-cluster-identifier my-cluster ^ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

API

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window, use the Amazon RDS API ModifyDBCluster action with the following parameters:

  • DBClusterIdentifier = my-cluster

  • PreferredMaintenanceWindow = Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ ?Action=ModifyDBCluster &DBClusterIdentifier=my-cluster &PreferredMaintenanceWindow=Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30 &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &SignatureVersion=4 &Version=2014-10-31 &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20140725/us-east-1/rds/aws4_request &X-Amz-Date=20161017T161457Z &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date &X-Amz-Signature=d6d1c65c2e94f5800ab411a3f7336625820b103713b6c063430900514e21d784

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