Planning a certificate revocation list (CRL) - AWS Certificate Manager Private Certificate Authority

Planning a certificate revocation list (CRL)

Before you can configure a CRL as part of the CA creation process, some prior setup may be necessary. This section explains the prerequisites and options that you should understand before creating a CA with a CRL attached.

For information about using Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) as an alternative or a supplement to a CRL, see 4. Configure revocation and Configuring a Custom URL for ACM Private CA OCSP.

CRL structure

Each CRL is a DER encoded file. To download the file and use OpenSSL to view it, use a command similar to the following:

openssl crl -inform DER -in path-to-crl-file -text -noout

CRLs have the following format:

Certificate Revocation List (CRL): Version 2 (0x1) Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption Issuer: /C=US/ST=WA/L=Seattle/O=Example Company CA/OU=Corporate/ Last Update: Feb 26 19:28:25 2018 GMT Next Update: Feb 26 20:28:25 2019 GMT CRL extensions: X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:AA:6E:C1:8A:EC:2F:8F:21:BC:BE:80:3D:C5:65:93:79:99:E7:71:65 X509v3 CRL Number: 1519676905984 Revoked Certificates: Serial Number: E8CBD2BEDB122329F97706BCFEC990F8 Revocation Date: Feb 26 20:00:36 2018 GMT CRL entry extensions: X509v3 CRL Reason Code: Key Compromise Serial Number: F7D7A3FD88B82C6776483467BBF0B38C Revocation Date: Jan 30 21:21:31 2018 GMT CRL entry extensions: X509v3 CRL Reason Code: Key Compromise Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption 82:9a:40:76:86:a5:f5:4e:1e:43:e2:ea:83:ac:89:07:49:bf: c2:fd:45:7d:15:d0:76:fe:64:ce:7b:3d:bb:4c:a0:6c:4b:4f: 9e:1d:27:f8:69:5e:d1:93:5b:95:da:78:50:6d:a8:59:bb:6f: 49:9b:04:fa:38:f2:fc:4c:0d:97:ac:02:51:26:7d:3e:fe:a6: c6:83:34:b4:84:0b:5d:b1:c4:25:2f:66:0a:2e:30:f6:52:88: e8:d2:05:78:84:09:01:e8:9d:c2:9e:b5:83:bd:8a:3a:e4:94: 62:ed:92:e0:be:ea:d2:59:5b:c7:c3:61:35:dc:a9:98:9d:80: 1c:2a:f7:23:9b:fe:ad:6f:16:7e:22:09:9a:79:8f:44:69:89: 2a:78:ae:92:a4:32:46:8d:76:ee:68:25:63:5c:bd:41:a5:5a: 57:18:d7:71:35:85:5c:cd:20:28:c6:d5:59:88:47:c9:36:44: 53:55:28:4d:6b:f8:6a:00:eb:b4:62:de:15:56:c8:9c:45:d7: 83:83:07:21:84:b4:eb:0b:23:f2:61:dd:95:03:02:df:0d:0f: 97:32:e0:9d:38:de:7c:15:e4:36:66:7a:18:da:ce:a3:34:94: 58:a6:5d:5c:04:90:35:f1:8b:55:a9:3c:dd:72:a2:d7:5f:73: 5a:2c:88:85

The CRL will only be deposited in Amazon S3 after a certificate has been issued that refers to it. Prior to that, there will only be an acm-pca-permission-test-key file visible in the Amazon S3 bucket.

Access policies for CRLs in Amazon S3

If you plan to create a CRL, you need to prepare an Amazon S3 bucket to store it in. ACM Private CA automatically deposits the CRL in the Amazon S3 bucket you designate and updates it periodically. For more information, see Creating a bucket?

Your S3 bucket must be secured by an attached permissions policy. Authorized users and service principals require Put permission to allow ACM Private CA to place objects in the bucket, and Get permission to retrieve them. During the console procedure for creating a CA, you can choose to let ACM Private CA create a new bucket and apply a default permissions policy.

The default policy applies no SourceArn restriction on the CA. We recommend that you manually apply the less permissive policy shown below, which restricts access to both a specific AWS account and a specific private CA. For more information, see Adding a bucket policy using the Amazon S3 console.

{ "Version":"2012-10-17", "Statement":[ { "Effect":"Allow", "Principal":{ "Service":"" }, "Action":[ "s3:PutObject", "s3:PutObjectAcl", "s3:GetBucketAcl", "s3:GetBucketLocation" ], "Resource":[ "arn:aws:s3:::DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/*", "arn:aws:s3:::DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET" ], "Condition":{ "StringEquals":{ "aws:SourceAccount":"account", "aws:SourceArn":"arn:partition:acm-pca:region:account:certificate-authority/CA_ID" } } } ] }

If you choose to allow the default policy, you can always modify it later.

Enabling the S3 Block Public Access (BPA) feature

New Amazon S3 buckets are configured by default with the Block Public Access (BPA) feature activated. Included in the Amazon S3 security best practices, BPA is a set of access controls that customers can use to fine-tune access to objects in their S3 buckets and to the buckets as a whole. When BPA is active and correctly configured, only authorized and authenticated AWS users have access to a bucket and its contents.

AWS recommends the use of BPA on all S3 buckets to avoid exposure of sensitive information to potential adversaries. However, additional planning is required if your PKI clients retrieve CRLs across the public internet (that is, while not logged into an AWS account). This section describes how to configure a private PKI solution using Amazon CloudFront, a content delivery network (CDN), to serve CRLs without requiring authenticated client access to an S3 bucket.


Using CloudFront incurs additional costs on your AWS account. For more information, see Amazon CloudFront Pricing.

If you choose to store your CRL in an S3 bucket with BPA enabled, and you do not use CloudFront, you must build another CDN solution to ensure that your PKI client has access to your CRL.

Set up Amazon S3 with BPA

In S3, create a new bucket for your CRL, as usual, then enable BPA on it.

To configure an Amazon S3 bucket that blocks public access to your CRL

  1. Create a new S3 bucket using the procedure in Creating a bucket. During the procedure, select the Block all public access option.

    For more information, see Blocking public access to your Amazon S3 storage.

  2. When the bucket has been created, choose its name from the list, navigate to the Permissions tab, choose Edit in the Object ownership section, and select Bucket owner preferred.

  3. Also on the Permissions tab, add an IAM policy to the bucket as described in Access policies for CRLs in Amazon S3 .

Set up CloudFront for BPA

Create a CloudFront distribution that will have access to your private S3 bucket, and can serve CRLs to unauthenticated clients.

To configure a CloudFront distribution for the CRL

  1. Create a new CloudFront distribution using the procedure in Creating a Distribution in the Amazon CloudFront Developer Guide.

    While completing the procedure, apply the following settings:

    • In Origin Domain Name, choose your S3 bucket.

    • Choose Yes for Restrict Bucket Access.

    • Choose Create a New Identity for Origin Access Identity.

    • Choose Yes, Update Bucket Policy under Grant Read Permissions on Bucket.


      In this procedure, CloudFront modifies your bucket policy to allow it to access bucket objects. Consider editing this policy to allow access only to objects under the crl folder.

  2. After the distribution has initialized, locate its domain name in the CloudFront console and save it for the next procedure.


    If your S3 bucket was newly created in a Region other than us-east-1, you might get an HTTP 307 temporary redirect error when you access your published application through CloudFront. It might take several hours for the address of the bucket to propagate.

Set up your CA for BPA

While configuring your new CA, include the alias to your CloudFront distribution.

To configure your CA with a CNAME for CloudFront

  • Create your CA using Procedure for creating a CA (CLI) .

    When you perform the procedure, the revocation file revoke_config.txt should include the following lines to specify a non-public CRL object and to provide a URL to the distribution endpoint in CloudFront:

    "S3ObjectAcl":"BUCKET_OWNER_FULL_CONTROL", "CustomCname":""

    Afterward, when you issue certificates with this CA, they will contain a block like the following:

    X509v3 CRL Distribution Points: Full Name: URI:

If you have older certificates that were issued by this CA, they will be unable to access the CRL.

Encrypting Your CRLs

You can optionally configure encryption on the Amazon S3 bucket containing your CRLs. ACM Private CA supports two encryption modes for assets in Amazon S3:

  • Automatic server-side encryption with Amazon S3-managed AES-256 keys.

  • Customer managed encryption using AWS Key Management Service and an AWS KMS key configured to your specifications.


ACM Private CA does not support using default KMS keys generated automatically by S3.

The following procedures describe how to set up each of the encryption options.

To configure automatic encryption

Complete the following steps to enable S3 server-side encryption.

  1. Open the Amazon S3 console at

  2. In the Buckets table, choose the bucket that will hold your ACM Private CA assets.

  3. On the page for your bucket, choose the Properties tab.

  4. Choose the Default encryption card.

  5. Choose Enable.

  6. Choose Amazon S3 key (SSE-S3).

  7. Choose Save Changes.

To configure custom encryption

Complete the following steps to enable encryption using a custom key.

  1. Open the Amazon S3 console at

  2. In the Buckets table, choose the bucket that will hold your ACM Private CA assets.

  3. On the page for your bucket, choose the Properties tab.

  4. Choose the Default encryption card.

  5. Choose Enable.

  6. Choose AWS Key Management Service key (SSE-KMS).

  7. Choose either Choose from your AWS KMS keys or Enter AWS KMS key ARN.

  8. Set Bucket Key to Disable.

  9. Choose Save Changes.

  10. (Optional) If you do not have an KMS key already, create one using the following AWS CLI create-key command:

    $ aws kms create-key

    The output contains the key ID and Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the KMS key. The following is an example output:

    { "KeyMetadata": { "KeyId": "01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef", "Description": "", "Enabled": true, "KeyUsage": "ENCRYPT_DECRYPT", "KeyState": "Enabled", "CreationDate": 1478910250.94, "Arn": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:123456789012:key/01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef", "AWSAccountId": "123456789012" } }
  11. Using the following steps, you give the ACM Private CA service principal permission to use the KMS key. By default, all KMS keys are private; only the resource owner can use a KMS key to encrypt and decrypt data. However, the resource owner can grant permissions to access the KMS key to other users and resources. The service principal must be in the same Region as where the KMS key is stored.

    1. First, save the default policy for your KMS key as policy.json using the following get-key-policy command:

      $ aws kms get-key-policy --key-id key-id --policy-name default --output text > ./policy.json
    2. Open the policy.json file in a text editor and add the following statement:

      { "Sid":"Allow ACM-PCA use of the key", "Effect":"Allow", "Principal":{ "Service":"" }, "Action":[ "kms:GenerateDataKey", "kms:Decrypt" ], "Resource":"*", "Condition":{ "StringLike":{ "kms:EncryptionContext:aws:s3:arn":[ "arn:aws:s3:::bucket-name/acm-pca-permission-test-key", "arn:aws:s3:::bucket-name/acm-pca-permission-test-key-private", "arn:aws:s3:::bucket-name/audit-report/*", "arn:aws:s3:::bucket-name/crl/*" ] } } }
    3. Finally, add the updated policy using the following put-key-policy command:

      $ aws kms put-key-policy --key-id key_id --policy-name default --policy file://policy.json