Security best practices for Amazon S3 - Amazon Simple Storage Service

Security best practices for Amazon S3

Amazon S3 provides a number of security features to consider as you develop and implement your own security policies. The following best practices are general guidelines and don't represent a complete security solution. Because these best practices might not be appropriate or sufficient for your environment, treat them as helpful recommendations rather than prescriptions.

Amazon S3 security best practices

The following best practices for Amazon S3 can help prevent security incidents.

Disable access control lists (ACLs)

S3 Object Ownership is an Amazon S3 bucket-level setting that you can use to control ownership of objects uploaded to your bucket and to disable or enable ACLs. By default, Object Ownership is set to the Bucket owner enforced setting and all ACLs are disabled. When ACLs are disabled, the bucket owner owns all the objects in the bucket and manages access to data exclusively using access management policies.

A majority of modern use cases in Amazon S3 no longer require the use of access control lists (ACLs). We recommend that you disable ACLs, except in unusual circumstances where you must control access for each object individually. To disable ACLs and take ownership of every object in your bucket, apply the bucket owner enforced setting for S3 Object Ownership. When you disable ACLs, you can easily maintain a bucket with objects uploaded by different AWS accounts.

When ACLs are disabled access control for your data is based on policies, such as the following:

  • AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user policies

  • S3 bucket policies

  • Virtual private cloud (VPC) endpoint policies

  • AWS Organizations service control policies (SCPs)

Disabling ACLs simplifies permissions management and auditing. ACLs are disabled for new buckets by default. You can also disable ACLs for existing buckets. If you have an existing bucket that already has objects in it, after you disable ACLs, the object and bucket ACLs are no longer part of the access-evaluation process. Instead, access is granted or denied on the basis of policies.

Before you disable ACLs, make sure that you do the following:

  • Review your bucket policy to ensure that it covers all the ways that you intend to grant access to your bucket outside of your account.

  • Reset your bucket ACL to the default (full control to the bucket owner).

After you disable ACLs, the following behaviors occur:

  • Your bucket accepts only PUT requests that do not specify an ACL or PUT requests with bucket owner full control ACLs. These ACLs include the bucket-owner-full-control canned ACL or equivalent forms of this ACL that are expressed in XML.

  • Existing applications that support bucket owner full control ACLs see no impact.

  • PUT requests that contain other ACLs (for example, custom grants to certain AWS accounts) fail and return an HTTP status code 400 (Bad Request) with the error code AccessControlListNotSupported.

For more information, see Controlling ownership of objects and disabling ACLs for your bucket.

Ensure that your Amazon S3 buckets use the correct policies and are not publicly accessible

Unless you explicitly require anyone on the internet to be able to read or write to your S3 bucket, make sure that your S3 bucket is not public. The following are some of the steps that you can take to block public access:

  • Use S3 Block Public Access. With S3 Block Public Access, you can easily set up centralized controls to limit public access to your Amazon S3 resources. These centralized controls are enforced regardless of how the resources are created. For more information, see Blocking public access to your Amazon S3 storage.

  • Identify Amazon S3 bucket policies that allow a wildcard identity such as "Principal": "*" (which effectively means "anyone"). Also look for policies that allow a wildcard action "*" (which effectively allows the user to perform any action in the Amazon S3 bucket).

  • Similarly, look for Amazon S3 bucket access control lists (ACLs) that provide read, write, or full-access to "Everyone" or "Any authenticated AWS user."

  • Use the ListBuckets API operation to scan all of your Amazon S3 buckets. Then use GetBucketAcl, GetBucketWebsite, and GetBucketPolicy to determine whether each bucket has compliant access controls and a compliant configuration.

  • Use AWS Trusted Advisor to inspect your Amazon S3 implementation.

  • Consider implementing ongoing detective controls by using the s3-bucket-public-read-prohibited and s3-bucket-public-write-prohibited managed AWS Config Rules.

For more information, see Identity and access management in Amazon S3.

Implement least privilege access

When granting permissions, you decide who is getting what permissions to which Amazon S3 resources. You enable specific actions that you want to allow on those resources. Therefore, we recommend that you grant only the permissions that are required to perform a task. Implementing least privilege access is fundamental in reducing security risk and the impact that could result from errors or malicious intent.

The following tools are available to implement least privilege access:

For guidance on what to consider when choosing one or more of the preceding mechanisms, see Access policy guidelines.

Use IAM roles for applications and AWS services that require Amazon S3 access

In order for applications running on Amazon EC2 or other AWS services to access Amazon S3 resources, they must include valid AWS credentials in their AWS API requests. We recommend not storing AWS credentials directly in the application or Amazon EC2 instance. These are long-term credentials that are not automatically rotated and could have a significant business impact if they are compromised.

Instead, use an IAM role to manage temporary credentials for applications or services that need to access Amazon S3. When you use a role, you don't have to distribute long-term credentials (such as a username and password or access keys) to an Amazon EC2 instance or AWS service, such as AWS Lambda. The role supplies temporary permissions that applications can use when they make calls to other AWS resources.

For more information, see the following topics in the IAM User Guide:

Consider encryption of data at rest

You have the following options for protecting data at rest in Amazon S3:

  • Server-side encryption – When you use server-side encryption, Amazon S3 encrypts your objects before saving them on disks in its data centers and then decrypts the objects when you download them. Server-side encryption can help reduce risk to your data by encrypting the data with a key that is stored in a different mechanism than the mechanism that stores the data itself.

    Amazon S3 provides these server-side encryption options:

    • Server-side encryption with Amazon S3 managed keys (SSE-S3)

    • Server-side encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) keys (SSE-KMS)

    • Server-side encryption with customer-provided keys (SSE-C)

    For more information, see Protecting data using server-side encryption.

  • Client-side encryption – Encrypt data client-side and upload the encrypted data to Amazon S3. In this case, you manage the encryption process, the encryption keys, and related tools. As with server-side encryption, client-side encryption can help reduce risk by encrypting the data with a key that is stored in a different mechanism than the mechanism that stores the data itself.

    Amazon S3 provides multiple client-side encryption options. For more information, see Protecting data by using client-side encryption.

Enforce encryption of data in transit

You can use HTTPS (TLS) to help prevent potential attackers from eavesdropping on or manipulating network traffic by using person-in-the-middle or similar attacks. We recommend allowing only encrypted connections over HTTPS (TLS) by using the aws:SecureTransport condition in your Amazon S3 bucket policies.

Also consider implementing ongoing detective controls by using the s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only managed AWS Config rule.

Consider using S3 Object Lock

With S3 Object Lock, you can store objects by using a "Write Once Read Many" (WORM) model. S3 Object Lock can help prevent accidental or inappropriate deletion of data. For example, you can use S3 Object Lock to help protect your AWS CloudTrail logs.

For more information, see Using S3 Object Lock.

Enable S3 Versioning

S3 Versioning is a means of keeping multiple variants of an object in the same bucket. You can use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your bucket. With versioning, you can easily recover from both unintended user actions and application failures.

Also consider implementing ongoing detective controls by using the s3-bucket-versioning-enabled managed AWS Config rule.

For more information, see Using versioning in S3 buckets.

Consider using S3 Cross-Region Replication

Although Amazon S3 stores your data across multiple geographically diverse Availability Zones by default, compliance requirements might dictate that you store data at even greater distances. With S3 Cross-Region Replication (CRR), you can replicate data between distant AWS Regions to help satisfy these requirements. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across buckets in different AWS Regions. For more information, see Replicating objects.

Note

CRR requires both the source and destination S3 buckets to have versioning enabled.

Also consider implementing ongoing detective controls by using the s3-bucket-replication-enabled managed AWS Config rule.

Consider using VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 access

A virtual private cloud (VPC) endpoint for Amazon S3 is a logical entity within a VPC that allows connectivity only to Amazon S3. VPC endpoints can help prevent traffic from traversing the open internet.

VPC endpoints for Amazon S3 provide multiple ways to control access to your Amazon S3 data:

  • You can control the requests, users, or groups that are allowed through a specific VPC endpoint by using S3 bucket policies.

  • You can control which VPCs or VPC endpoints have access to your S3 buckets by using S3 bucket policies.

  • You can help prevent data exfiltration by using a VPC that does not have an internet gateway.

For more information, see Controlling access from VPC endpoints with bucket policies.

Use managed AWS security services to monitor data security

Several managed AWS security services can help you identify, assess, and monitor security and compliance risks for your Amazon S3 data. These services can also help you protect your data from those risks. These services include automated detection, monitoring, and protection capabilities that are designed to scale from Amazon S3 resources for a single AWS account to resources for organizations spanning thousands of accounts.

For more information, see Monitoring data security with managed AWS security services.

Amazon S3 monitoring and auditing best practices

The following best practices for Amazon S3 can help detect potential security weaknesses and incidents.

Identify and audit all of your Amazon S3 buckets

Identification of your IT assets is a crucial aspect of governance and security. You need to have visibility of all your Amazon S3 resources to assess their security posture and take action on potential areas of weakness. To audit your resources, we recommend doing the following:

  • Use Tag Editor to identify and tag security-sensitive or audit-sensitive resources, then use those tags when you need to search for these resources. For more information, see Searching for Resources to Tag in the Tagging AWS Resources User Guide.

  • Use S3 Inventory to audit and report on the replication and encryption status of your objects for business, compliance, and regulatory needs. For more information, see Amazon S3 Inventory.

  • Create resource groups for your Amazon S3 resources. For more information, see What are resource groups? in the AWS Resource Groups User Guide.

Implement monitoring by using AWS monitoring tools

Monitoring is an important part of maintaining the reliability, security, availability, and performance of Amazon S3 and your AWS solutions. AWS provides several tools and services to help you monitor Amazon S3 and your other AWS services. For example, you can monitor Amazon CloudWatch metrics for Amazon S3, particularly the PutRequests, GetRequests, 4xxErrors, and DeleteRequests metrics. For more information, see Monitoring metrics with Amazon CloudWatch and Monitoring Amazon S3.

For a second example, see Example: Amazon S3 Bucket Activity. This example describes how to create a CloudWatch alarm that is triggered when an Amazon S3 API call is made to PUT or DELETE a bucket policy, a bucket lifecycle, or a bucket replication configuration, or to PUT a bucket ACL.

Enable Amazon S3 server access logging

Server access logging provides detailed records of the requests that are made to a bucket. Server access logs can assist you in security and access audits, help you learn about your customer base, and understand your Amazon S3 bill. For instructions on enabling server access logging, see Logging requests using server access logging.

Also consider implementing ongoing detective controls by using the s3-bucket-logging-enabled AWS Config managed rule.

Use AWS CloudTrail

AWS CloudTrail provides a record of actions taken by a user, a role, or an AWS service in Amazon S3. You can use information collected by CloudTrail to determine the following:

  • The request that was made to Amazon S3

  • The IP address from which the request was made

  • Who made the request

  • When the request was made

  • Additional details about the request

For example, you can identify CloudTrail entries for PUT actions that affect data access, in particular PutBucketAcl, PutObjectAcl, PutBucketPolicy, and PutBucketWebsite.

When you set up your AWS account, CloudTrail is enabled by default. You can view recent events in the CloudTrail console. To create an ongoing record of activity and events for your Amazon S3 buckets, you can create a trail in the CloudTrail console. For more information, see Logging data events in the AWS CloudTrail User Guide.

When you create a trail, you can configure CloudTrail to log data events. Data events are records of resource operations performed on or within a resource. In Amazon S3, data events record object-level API activity for individual buckets. CloudTrail supports a subset of Amazon S3 object-level API operations, such as GetObject, DeleteObject, and PutObject. For more information about how CloudTrail works with Amazon S3, see Logging Amazon S3 API calls using AWS CloudTrail. In the Amazon S3 console, you can also configure your S3 buckets to Enabling CloudTrail event logging for S3 buckets and objects.

AWS Config provides a managed rule (cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled) that you can use to confirm that at least one CloudTrail trail is logging data events for your S3 buckets. For more information, see cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled in the AWS Config Developer Guide.

Enable AWS Config

Several of the best practices listed in this topic suggest creating AWS Config rules. AWS Config helps you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configurations of your AWS resources. AWS Config monitors resource configurations so that you can evaluate the recorded configurations against the desired secure configurations. With AWS Config, you can do the following:

  • Review changes in configurations and relationships between AWS resources

  • Investigate detailed resource-configuration histories

  • Determine your overall compliance against the configurations specified in your internal guidelines

Using AWS Config can help you simplify compliance auditing, security analysis, change management, and operational troubleshooting. For more information, see Setting Up AWS Config with the Console in the AWS Config Developer Guide. When specifying the resource types to record, ensure that you include Amazon S3 resources.

For an example of how to use AWS Config, see How to Use AWS Config to Monitor for and Respond to Amazon S3 Buckets Allowing Public Access on the AWS Security Blog.

Discover sensitive data by using Amazon Macie

Amazon Macie is a security service that discovers sensitive data by using machine learning and pattern matching. Macie provides visibility into data security risks, and enables automated protection against those risks. With Macie, you can automate the discovery and reporting of sensitive data in your Amazon S3 data estate to gain a better understanding of the data that your organization stores in Amazon S3.

To detect sensitive data with Macie, you can use built-in criteria and techniques that are designed to detect a large and growing list of sensitive data types for many countries and regions. These sensitive data types include multiple types of personally identifiable information (PII), financial data, and credentials data. You can also use custom criteria that you define—regular expressions that define text patterns to match and, optionally, character sequences and proximity rules that refine the results.

If Macie detects sensitive data in an S3 object, Macie generates a security finding to notify you. This finding provides information about the affected object, the types and number of occurrences of the sensitive data that Macie found, and additional details to help you investigate the affected S3 bucket and object. For more information, see the Amazon Macie User Guide.

Use S3 Storage Lens

S3 Storage Lens is a cloud-storage analytics feature that you can use to gain organization-wide visibility into object-storage usage and activity. S3 Storage Lens also analyzes metrics to deliver contextual recommendations that you can use to optimize storage costs and apply best practices for protecting your data.

With S3 Storage Lens, you can use metrics to generate summary insights, such as finding out how much storage you have across your entire organization or which are the fastest-growing buckets and prefixes. You can also use S3 Storage Lens metrics to identify cost-optimization opportunities, implement data-protection and access-management best practices, and improve the performance of application workloads.

For example, you can identify buckets that don't have S3 Lifecycle rules to abort incomplete multipart uploads that are more than 7 days old. You can also identify buckets that aren't following data-protection best practices, such as using S3 Replication or S3 Versioning. For more information, see Understanding Amazon S3 Storage Lens.

Monitor AWS security advisories

We recommend that you regularly check the security advisories posted in Trusted Advisor for your AWS account. In particular, look for warnings about Amazon S3 buckets with "open access permissions." You can do this programmatically by using describe-trusted-advisor-checks.

Further, actively monitor the primary email address that's registered to each of your AWS accounts. AWS uses this email address to contact you about emerging security issues that might affect you.

AWS operational issues with broad impact are posted on the AWS Health Dashboard - Service health. Operational issues are also posted to individual accounts through the AWS Health Dashboard. For more information, see the AWS Health documentation.