Encrypting Amazon DocumentDB Data at Rest - Amazon DocumentDB

Encrypting Amazon DocumentDB Data at Rest

You encrypt data at rest in your Amazon DocumentDB cluster by specifying the storage encryption option when you create your cluster. Storage encryption is enabled cluster-wide and is applied to all instances, including the primary instance and any replicas. It is also applied to your cluster’s storage volume, data, indexes, logs, automated backups, and snapshots.

Amazon DocumentDB uses the 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-256) to encrypt your data using encryption keys stored in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). When using an Amazon DocumentDB cluster with encryption at rest enabled, you don't need to modify your application logic or client connection. Amazon DocumentDB handles encryption and decryption of your data transparently, with minimal impact on performance.

Amazon DocumentDB integrates with AWS KMS and uses a method known as envelope encryption to protect your data. When an Amazon DocumentDB cluster is encrypted with an AWS KMS customer master key (CMK), Amazon DocumentDB asks AWS KMS to use your CMK to generate a ciphertext data key to encrypt the storage volume. The ciphertext data key is encrypted using the CMK that you define, and is stored along with the encrypted data and storage metadata. When Amazon DocumentDB needs to access your encrypted data, it requests AWS KMS to decrypt the ciphertext data key using your CMK and caches the plaintext data key in memory to efficiently encrypt and decrypt data in the storage volume.

The storage encryption facility in Amazon DocumentDB is available for all supported instance sizes and in all AWS Regions where Amazon DocumentDB is available.

Enabling Encryption at Rest for an Amazon DocumentDB Cluster

You can enable or disable encryption at rest on an Amazon DocumentDB cluster when the cluster is provisioned using either the AWS Management Console or the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). Clusters that you create using the console have encryption at rest enabled by default. Clusters that you create using the AWS CLI have encryption at rest disabled by default. Therefore, you must explicitly enable encryption at rest using the --storage-encrypted parameter. In either case, after the cluster is created, you can't change the encryption at rest option.

Amazon DocumentDB uses AWS KMS to retrieve and manage encryption keys, and to define the policies that control how these keys can be used. If you don't specify an AWS KMS key identifier, Amazon DocumentDB uses the default AWS managed service customer master key (CMK). Amazon DocumentDB creates a separate CMK for each AWS Region in your AWS account. For more information, see AWS Key Management Service Concepts.

To get started on creating your own CMK, see Getting Started in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

Important

You must use a symmetric CMK to encrypt your cluster as Amazon DocumentDB supports only symmetric CMKs. Do not use an asymmetric CMK to attempt to encrypt the data in your Amazon DocumentDB clusters. For more information, see Using Symmetric and Asymmetric Keys in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

If Amazon DocumentDB can no longer gain access to the encryption key for a cluster — for example, when access to a key is revoked — the encrypted cluster goes into a terminal state. In this case, you can only restore the cluster from a backup. For Amazon DocumentDB, backups are always enabled for 1 day.

In addition, if you disable the key for an encrypted Amazon DocumentDB cluster, you cannot read from or write to that cluster. When Amazon DocumentDB encounters a cluster that is encrypted by a key that it doesn't have access to, it puts the cluster into a terminal state. In this state, the cluster is no longer available, and the current state of the database can't be recovered. To restore the cluster, you must re-enable access to the encryption key for Amazon DocumentDB, and then restore the cluster from a backup.

Important

You cannot change the CMK for an encrypted cluster after you have already created it. Be sure to determine your encryption key requirements before you create your encrypted cluster.

You specify the encryption at rest option when you create a cluster. Encryption at rest is enabled by default when you create a cluster using the AWS Management Console. It can't be changed after the cluster is created.

To specify the encryption at rest option when creating your cluster

  1. Create an Amazon DocumentDB cluster as described in the Getting Started section. However, in step 6, do not choose Create cluster.

  2. Under the Authentication section, choose Show advanced settings.

  3. Scroll down to the Encryption-at-rest section.

  4. Choose the option that you want for encryption at rest. Whichever option you choose, you can't change it after the cluster is created.

    • To encrypt data at rest in this cluster, choose Enable encryption.

    • If you don't want to encrypt data at rest in this cluster, choose Disable encryption.

  5. Choose the master key that you want. Amazon DocumentDB uses the AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) to retrieve and manage encryption keys, and to define the policies that control how these keys can be used. If you don't specify an AWS KMS key identifier, Amazon DocumentDB uses the default AWS managed service CMK. For more information, see AWS Key Management Service Concepts.

    Note

    After you create an encrypted cluster, you can't change the CMK for that cluster. Be sure to determine your encryption key requirements before you create your encrypted cluster.

  6. Complete the other sections as needed, and create your cluster.

To encrypt an Amazon DocumentDB cluster using the AWS CLI, you must specify the --storage-encrypted option when creating the cluster. Amazon DocumentDB clusters created using the AWS CLI do not enable storage encryption by default.

The following example creates an Amazon DocumentDB cluster with storage encryption enabled.

For Linux, macOS, or Unix:

aws docdb create-db-cluster \ --db-cluster-identifier sample-cluster \ --port 27017 \ --engine docdb \ --master-username yourMasterUsername \ --master-user-password yourMasterPassword \ --storage-encrypted

For Windows:

aws docdb create-db-cluster ^ --db-cluster-identifier sample-cluster ^ --port 27017 ^ --engine docdb ^ --master-username yourMasterUsername ^ --master-user-password yourMasterPassword ^ --storage-encrypted

When you create an encrypted Amazon DocumentDB cluster, you can specify an AWS KMS key identifier, as in the following example.

For Linux, macOS, or Unix:

aws docdb create-db-cluster \ --db-cluster-identifier sample-cluster \ --port 27017 \ --engine docdb \ --master-username yourMasterUsername \ --master-user-password yourMasterPassword \ --storage-encrypted \ --kms-key-id key-arn-or-alias

For Windows:

aws docdb create-db-cluster ^ --db-cluster-identifier sample-cluster ^ --port 27017 ^ --engine docdb ^ --master-username yourMasterUsername ^ --master-user-password yourMasterPassword ^ --storage-encrypted ^ --kms-key-id key-arn-or-alias
Note

After you create an encrypted cluster, you can't change the CMK for that cluster. Be sure to determine your encryption key requirements before you create your encrypted cluster.

Limitations for Amazon DocumentDB Encrypted Clusters

The following limitations exist for Amazon DocumentDB encrypted clusters.

  • You can enable or disable encryption at rest for an Amazon DocumentDB cluster only at the time that it is created, not after the cluster has been created. However, you can create an encrypted copy of an unencrypted cluster by creating a snapshot of the unencrypted cluster, and then restoring the unencrypted snapshot as a new cluster while specifying the encryption at rest option.

    For more information, see the following topics:

  • Amazon DocumentDB clusters with storage encryption enabled can't be modified to disable encryption.

  • All instances, automated backups, snapshots, and indexes in an Amazon DocumentDB cluster are encrypted with the same CMK.