Data protection in EC2 Image Builder - EC2 Image Builder

Data protection in EC2 Image Builder

The AWS shared responsibility model applies to data protection in EC2 Image Builder. As described in this model, AWS is responsible for protecting the global infrastructure that runs all of the AWS Cloud. You are responsible for maintaining control over your content that is hosted on this infrastructure. You are also responsible for the security configuration and management tasks for the AWS services that you use. For more information about data privacy, see the Data Privacy FAQ. For information about data protection in Europe, see the AWS Shared Responsibility Model and GDPR blog post on the AWS Security Blog.

For data protection purposes, we recommend that you protect AWS account credentials and set up individual users with AWS IAM Identity Center or AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM). That way, each user is given only the permissions necessary to fulfill their job duties. We also recommend that you secure your data in the following ways:

  • Use multi-factor authentication (MFA) with each account.

  • Use SSL/TLS to communicate with AWS resources. We require TLS 1.2 and recommend TLS 1.3.

  • Set up API and user activity logging with AWS CloudTrail.

  • Use AWS encryption solutions, along with all default security controls within AWS services.

  • Use advanced managed security services such as Amazon Macie, which assists in discovering and securing sensitive data that is stored in Amazon S3.

  • If you require FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules when accessing AWS through a command line interface or an API, use a FIPS endpoint. For more information about the available FIPS endpoints, see Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2.

We strongly recommend that you never put confidential or sensitive information, such as your customers' email addresses, into tags or free-form text fields such as a Name field. This includes when you work with Image Builder or other AWS services using the console, API, AWS CLI, or AWS SDKs. Any data that you enter into tags or free-form text fields used for names may be used for billing or diagnostic logs. If you provide a URL to an external server, we strongly recommend that you do not include credentials information in the URL to validate your request to that server.

Encryption and key management in EC2 Image Builder

Image Builder encrypts data in transit and at rest by default with a service-owned KMS key, except for the following:

  • Custom components – Image Builder encrypts custom components with your default KMS key, or a service-owned KMS key.

  • Image workflows – Image Builder can encrypt your image workflows with a customer managed key if you specify the key during workflow creation. Image Builder handles encryption and decryption with your key to run the workflows that you've configured for your images.

You can manage your own keys through AWS KMS. However, you don't have permission to manage the Image Builder KMS key owned by Image Builder. For more information about managing your KMS keys with AWS Key Management Service, see Getting Started in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

Encryption context

To provide an additional integrity and authenticity check on your encrypted data, you have the option of including an encryption context when you encrypt the data. When a resource is encrypted with an encryption context, AWS KMS cryptographically binds the context to the ciphertext. The resource can only be decrypted if the requester provides an exact, case-sensitive match for the context.

The policy examples in this section use an encryption context that resembles the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of an Image Builder workflow resource.

Encrypt image workflows with a customer managed key

To add a layer of protection, you can encrypt your Image Builder workflow resources with your own customer managed key. If you use your customer managed key to encrypt the Image Builder workflows that you create, you must grant access in the key policy for Image Builder to use your key when it encrypts and decrypts workflow resources. You can revoke access at any time. However, Image Builder will not have access to any workflows that are already encrypted if you revoke access to the key.

The process to grant Image Builder access to use your customer managed key has two steps, as follows:

Step 1: Add key policy permissions for Image Builder workflows

To enable Image Builder to encrypt and decrypt workflow resources when it creates or uses those workflows, you must specify permissions in the KMS key policy.

This example key policy grants access for Image Builder pipelines to encrypt workflow resources during the creation process, and decrypt workflow resources to use them. The policy also grants access for key administrators. The encryption context and resource specification use a wildcard to cover all Regions where you have workflow resources.

As a prerequisite for using image workflows, you created an IAM workflow execution role that grants permission for Image Builder to run workflow actions. The principal for the first statement shown in the key policy example here must specify your IAM workflow execution role.

For more information about customer managed keys, see Managing access to customer managed keys in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "Allow access to build images with encrypted workflow", "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/YourImageBuilderExecutionRole" }, "Action": [ "kms:Decrypt", "kms:GenerateDataKey" ], "Resource": "*", "Condition": { "StringLike": { "kms:EncryptionContext:aws:imagebuilder:arn": "arn:aws:imagebuilder:*:111122223333:workflow/*" } } }, { "Sid": "Allow access for key administrators", "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::111122223333:root" }, "Action": [ "kms:*" ], "Resource": "arn:aws:kms:*:111122223333:key/" } ] }
Step 2: Grant key access to your workflow execution role

The IAM role that Image Builder assumes to run your workflows needs permission to use your customer managed key. Without access to your key, Image Builder won't be able to encrypt or decrypt your workflow resources with it.

Edit the policy for your workflow execution role to add the following policy statement.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "Allow access to the workflow key", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "kms:Decrypt", "kms:GenerateDataKey" ], "Resource": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/key_ID", "Condition": { "StringLike": { "kms:EncryptionContext:aws:imagebuilder:arn": "arn:aws:imagebuilder:*:111122223333:workflow/*" } } } ] }

AWS CloudTrail events for image workflows

The following examples show typical AWS CloudTrail entries for encrypting and decrypting image workflows that are stored with a customer managed key.

Example: GenerateDataKey

This example shows what a CloudTrail event might look like when Image Builder invokes the AWS KMS GenerateDataKey API action from the Image Builder CreateWorkflow API action. Image Builder must encrypt a new workflow before it creates the workflow resource.

{ "eventVersion": "1.08", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "PRINCIPALID1234567890:workflow-role-name", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::111122223333:assumed-role/Admin/workflow-role-name", "accountId": "111122223333", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "PRINCIPALID1234567890", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/Admin", "accountId": "111122223333", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "creationDate": "2023-11-21T20:29:31Z", "mfaAuthenticated": "false" } }, "invokedBy": "" }, "eventTime": "2023-11-21T20:31:03Z", "eventSource": "", "eventName": "GenerateDataKey", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "", "userAgent": "", "requestParameters": { "encryptionContext": { "aws:imagebuilder:arn": "arn:aws:imagebuilder:us-west-2:111122223333:workflow/build/sample-encrypted-workflow/1.0.0/*", "aws-crypto-public-key": "key value" }, "keyId": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:alias/ExampleKMSKey", "numberOfBytes": 32 }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLEaaaaa", "eventID": "a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLE11111", "readOnly": true, "resources": [ { "accountId": "111122223333", "type": "AWS::KMS::Key", "ARN": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLEzzzzz" } ], "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "managementEvent": true, "recipientAccountId": "111122223333", "eventCategory": "Management" }
Example: Decrypt

This example shows what a CloudTrail event might look like when Image Builder invokes the AWS KMS Decrypt API action from the Image Builder GetWorkflow API action. Image Builder pipelines need to decrypt a workflow resource before they can use it.

{ "eventVersion": "1.08", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "PRINCIPALID1234567890:workflow-role-name", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::111122223333:assumed-role/Admin/workflow-role-name", "accountId": "111122223333", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "PRINCIPALID1234567890", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/Admin", "accountId": "111122223333", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "creationDate": "2023-11-21T20:29:31Z", "mfaAuthenticated": "false" } }, "invokedBy": "" }, "eventTime": "2023-11-21T20:34:25Z", "eventSource": "", "eventName": "Decrypt", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "", "userAgent": "", "requestParameters": { "keyId": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLEzzzzz", "encryptionAlgorithm": "SYMMETRIC_DEFAULT", "encryptionContext": { "aws:imagebuilder:arn": "arn:aws:imagebuilder:us-west-2:111122223333:workflow/build/sample-encrypted-workflow/1.0.0/*", "aws-crypto-public-key": "ABC123def4567890abc12345678/90dE/F123abcDEF+4567890abc123D+ef1==" } }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLEbbbbb", "eventID": "a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLE22222", "readOnly": true, "resources": [ { "accountId": "111122223333", "type": "AWS::KMS::Key", "ARN": "arn:aws:kms:us-west-2:111122223333:key/a1b2c3d4-5678-90ab-cdef-EXAMPLEzzzzz" } ], "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "managementEvent": true, "recipientAccountId": "111122223333", "eventCategory": "Management" }

Data storage in EC2 Image Builder

Image Builder doesn't store any of your logs in the service. All logs are saved on your Amazon EC2 instance that is used to build the image, or in your Systems Manager automation logs.

Inter-network Traffic Privacy in EC2 Image Builder

Connections are secured between Image Builder and on-premises locations, between AZs within an AWS Region, and between AWS Regions through HTTPS. There are no direct connections between accounts.