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AWS Key Management Service
Developer Guide

How Amazon Redshift Uses AWS KMS

This topic discusses how Amazon Redshift uses AWS KMS to encrypt data.

Amazon Redshift Encryption

An Amazon Redshift data warehouse is a collection of computing resources called nodes, which are organized into a group called a cluster. Each cluster runs an Amazon Redshift engine and contains one or more databases.

Amazon Redshift uses a four-tier, key-based architecture for encryption. The architecture consists of data encryption keys, a database key, a cluster key, and a master key.

Data encryption keys encrypt data blocks in the cluster. Each data block is assigned a randomly-generated AES-256 key. These keys are encrypted by using the database key for the cluster.

The database key encrypts data encryption keys in the cluster. The database key is a randomly-generated AES-256 key. It is stored on disk in a separate network from the Amazon Redshift cluster and passed to the cluster across a secure channel.

The cluster key encrypts the database key for the Amazon Redshift cluster. You can use AWS KMS, AWS CloudHSM, or an external hardware security module (HSM) to manage the cluster key. See the Amazon Redshift Database Encryption documentation for more details.

If the master key resides in AWS KMS, it encrypts the cluster key. You can request encryption by checking the appropriate box in the Amazon Redshift console. You can specify a customer-managed master key to use by choosing one from the list that appears below the encryption box. If you do not specify a customer-managed key, the AWS-managed key for Amazon Redshift under your account will be used.

Encryption Context

Each service that is integrated with AWS KMS specifies an encryption context when requesting data keys, encrypting, and decrypting. The encryption context is additional authenticated information that AWS KMS uses to check for data integrity. That is, when an encryption context is specified for an encryption operation, the service also specifies it for the decryption operation or decryption will not succeed. Amazon Redshift uses the cluster ID and the creation time for the encryption context. In the requestParameters field of a CloudTrail log file, the encryption context will look similar to this.

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"encryptionContext": { "aws:redshift:arn": "arn:aws:redshift:region:account_ID:cluster:cluster_name", "aws:redshift:createtime": "20150206T1832Z" },
You can search on the cluster name in your CloudTrail logs to understand what operations were performed by using a customer master key. The operations include cluster encryption, cluster decryption, and generating data keys.

For more information, see Encryption Context.