Instrumenting Ruby code in AWS Lambda - AWS Lambda

Instrumenting Ruby code in AWS Lambda

Lambda integrates with AWS X-Ray to enable you to trace, debug, and optimize Lambda applications. You can use X-Ray to trace a request as it traverses resources in your application, from the frontend API to storage and database on the backend. By simply adding the X-Ray SDK library to your build configuration, you can record errors and latency for any call that your function makes to an AWS service.

After you've configured active tracing, you can observe specific requests through your application. The X-Ray service graph shows information about your application and all its components. The following example from the error processor sample application shows an application with two functions. The primary function processes events and sometimes returns errors. The second function at the top processes errors that appear in the first's log group and uses the AWS SDK to call X-Ray, Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), and Amazon CloudWatch Logs.


        A diagram that shows two separate applications and their respective service maps in X-Ray

To toggle active tracing on your Lambda function with the console, follow these steps:

To turn on active tracing

  1. Open the Functions page of the Lambda console.

  2. Choose a function.

  3. Choose Configuration and then choose Monitoring and operations tools.

  4. Choose Edit.

  5. Under X-Ray, toggle on Active tracing.

  6. Choose Save.

Pricing

You can use X-Ray tracing for free each month up to a certain limit as part of the AWS Free Tier. Beyond that threshold, X-Ray charges for trace storage and retrieval. For more information, see AWS X-Ray pricing.

Your function needs permission to upload trace data to X-Ray. When you activate tracing in the Lambda console, Lambda adds the required permissions to your function's execution role. Otherwise, add the AWSXRayDaemonWriteAccess policy to the execution role.

X-Ray doesn't trace all requests to your application. X-Ray applies a sampling algorithm to ensure that tracing is efficient, while still providing a representative sample of all requests. The sampling rate is 1 request per second and 5 percent of additional requests.

Note

You cannot configure the X-Ray sampling rate for your functions.

When using active tracing, Lambda records 2 segments per trace, which creates two nodes on the service graph. The following image highlights these two nodes for the primary function from the error processor example above.


      An X-Ray service map with a single function.

The first node on the left represents the Lambda service, which receives the invocation request. The second node represents your specific Lambda function. The following example shows a trace with these two segments. Both are named my-function, but one has an origin of AWS::Lambda and the other has origin AWS::Lambda::Function.


        An X-Ray trace that shows latency across each subsegment of a specific Lambda invocation.

This example expands the function segment to show its three subsegments:

  • Initialization – Represents time spent loading your function and running initialization code. This subsegment only appears for the first event that each instance of your function processes.

  • Invocation – Represents the time spent running your handler code.

  • Overhead – Represents the time the Lambda runtime spends preparing to handle the next event.

You can instrument your handler code to record metadata and trace downstream calls. To record detail about calls that your handler makes to other resources and services, use the X-Ray SDK for Ruby. To get the SDK, add the aws-xray-sdk package to your application's dependencies.

Example blank-ruby/function/Gemfile

# Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org' gem 'aws-xray-sdk', '0.11.4' gem 'aws-sdk-lambda', '1.39.0' gem 'test-unit', '3.3.5'

To instrument AWS SDK clients, require the aws-xray-sdk/lambda module after creating a client in initialization code.

Example blank-ruby/function/lambda_function.rb – Tracing an AWS SDK client

# lambda_function.rb require 'logger' require 'json' require 'aws-sdk-lambda' $client = Aws::Lambda::Client.new() $client.get_account_settings() require 'aws-xray-sdk/lambda' def lambda_handler(event:, context:) logger = Logger.new($stdout) ...

When using active tracing, Lambda records 2 segments per trace, which creates two nodes on the service graph. The following image highlights these two nodes for the primary function from the error processor example above.


      An X-Ray service map with a single function.

The first node on the left represents the Lambda service, which receives the invocation request. The second node represents your specific Lambda function. The following example shows a trace with these two segments. Both are named my-function, but one has an origin of AWS::Lambda and the other has origin AWS::Lambda::Function.


        An X-Ray trace that shows latency across each subsegment of a specific Lambda invocation.

This example expands the function segment to show its three subsegments:

  • Initialization – Represents time spent loading your function and running initialization code. This subsegment only appears for the first event that each instance of your function processes.

  • Invocation – Represents the time spent running your handler code.

  • Overhead – Represents the time the Lambda runtime spends preparing to handle the next event.

You can also instrument HTTP clients, record SQL queries, and create custom subsegments with annotations and metadata. For more information, see The X-Ray SDK for Ruby in the AWS X-Ray Developer Guide.

Enabling active tracing with the Lambda API

To manage tracing configuration with the AWS CLI or AWS SDK, use the following API operations:

The following example AWS CLI command enables active tracing on a function named my-function.

aws lambda update-function-configuration --function-name my-function \ --tracing-config Mode=Active

Tracing mode is part of the version-specific configuration when you publish a version of your function. You can't change the tracing mode on a published version.

Enabling active tracing with AWS CloudFormation

To activate tracing on an AWS::Lambda::Function resource in an AWS CloudFormation template, use the TracingConfig property.

Example function-inline.yml – Tracing configuration

Resources: function: Type: AWS::Lambda::Function Properties: TracingConfig: Mode: Active ...

For an AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) AWS::Serverless::Function resource, use the Tracing property.

Example template.yml – Tracing configuration

Resources: function: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: Tracing: Active ...

Storing runtime dependencies in a layer

If you use the X-Ray SDK to instrument AWS SDK clients your function code, your deployment package can become quite large. To avoid uploading runtime dependencies every time you update your function code, package the X-Ray SDK in a Lambda layer.

The following example shows an AWS::Serverless::LayerVersion resource that stores X-Ray SDK for Ruby.

Example template.yml – Dependencies layer

Resources: function: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: function/. Tracing: Active Layers: - !Ref libs ... libs: Type: AWS::Serverless::LayerVersion Properties: LayerName: blank-ruby-lib Description: Dependencies for the blank-ruby sample app. ContentUri: lib/. CompatibleRuntimes: - ruby2.5

With this configuration, you update the library layer only if you change your runtime dependencies. Since the function deployment package contains only your code, this can help reduce upload times.

Creating a layer for dependencies requires build changes to generate the layer archive prior to deployment. For a working example, see the blank-ruby sample application.