Amazon Neptune
User Guide (API Version 2017-11-29)

The joinOrder SPARQL Query Hint

When you submit a SPARQL query, the Amazon Neptune query engine investigates the structure of the query. It reorders parts of the query and tries to minimize the amount of work required for evaluation and query response time.

For example, a sequence of connected triple patterns is typically not evaluated in the given order. It is reordered using heuristics and statistics such as the selectivity of the individual patterns and how they are connected through shared variables. Additionally, if your query contains more complex patterns such as subqueries, FILTERs, or complex OPTIONAL or MINUS blocks, the Neptune query engine reorders them where possible, aiming for an efficient evaluation order.

For more complex queries, the order in which Neptune chooses to evaluate the query might not always be optimal. For instance, Neptune might miss instance data specific characteristics (such as hitting power nodes in the graph) that emerge during query evaluation.

If you know the exact characteristics of the data and want to manually dictate the order of the query execution, use the Neptune joinOrder query hint to specify that the query be evaluated in the given order.

SPARQL joinOrder Hint Syntax

The joinOrder query hint is specified as a triple pattern included in a SPARQL query.

For clarity, the following syntax uses a hint prefix defined and included in the query to specify the Neptune query-hint namespace:

PREFIX hint: <> scope hint:joinOrder "Ordered" .

Available Scopes

  • hint:Query

  • hint:Group

For more information about query hint scopes, see Scope of SPARQL Query Hints in Neptune.

SPARQL joinOrder Hint Example

This section shows a query written with and without the joinOrder query hint and related optimizations.

For this example, assume that the dataset contains the following:

  • A single person named John that :likes 1,000 persons, including Jane.

  • A single person named Jane that :likes 10 persons, including John.

No Query Hint

The following SPARQL query extracts all the pairs of people named John and Jane who both like each other from a set of social networking data:

PREFIX : <> SELECT ?john ?jane { ?person1 :name "Jane" . ?person1 :likes ?person2 . ?person2 :name "John" . ?person2 :likes ?person1 . }

The Neptune query engine might evaluate the statements in a different order than written. For example, it might choose to evaluate in the following order:

  1. Find all persons named John.

  2. Find all persons connected to John by a :likes edge.

  3. Filter this set by persons named Jane.

  4. Filter this set by those connected to John by a :likes edge.

According to the dataset, evaluating in this order results in 1,000 entities being extracted in the second step. The third step narrows this down to the single node, Jane. The final step then determines that Jane also :likes the John node.

Query Hint

It would be favorable to start with the Jane node because she has only 10 outgoing :likes edges. This reduces the amount of work during the evaluation of the query by avoiding the extraction of the 1,000 entities during the second step.

The following example uses the joinOrder query hint to ensure that the Jane node and its outgoing edges are processed first by disabling all automatic join reordering for the query:

PREFIX : <> PREFIX hint: <> SELECT ?john ?jane { hint:Query hint:joinOrder "Ordered" . ?person1 :name "Jane" . ?person1 :likes ?person2 . ?person2 :name "John" . ?person2 :likes ?person1 . }

An applicable real-world scenario might be a social network application in which persons in the network are classified as either influencers with many connections or normal users with few connections. In such a scenario, you could ensure that the normal user (Jane) is processed before the influencer (John) in a query like the preceding example.

Query Hint and Reorder

You can take this example one step further. If you know that the :name attribute is unique to a single node, you could speed up the query by reordering and using the joinOrder query hint. This step ensures that the unique nodes are extracted first.

PREFIX : <> PREFIX hint: <> SELECT ?john ?jane { hint:Query hint:joinOrder "Ordered" . ?person1 :name "Jane" . ?person2 :name "John" . ?person1 :likes ?person2 . ?person2 :likes ?person1 . }

In this case, you can reduce the query to the following single actions in each step:

  1. Find the single person node with :name Jane.

  2. Find the single person node with :name John.

  3. Check that the first node is connected to the second with a :likes edge.

  4. Check that the second node is connected to the first with a :likes edge.


If you choose the wrong order, the joinOrder query hint can lead to significant performance drops. For example, the preceding example would be inefficient if the :name attributes were not unique. If all 100 nodes were named Jane and all 1,000 nodes were named John, then the query would end up checking 1,000 * 100 (100,000) pairs for :likes edges.

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