Configuring security group communication settings for an Amazon Redshift cluster or an Amazon Redshift Serverless workgroup - Amazon Redshift

Configuring security group communication settings for an Amazon Redshift cluster or an Amazon Redshift Serverless workgroup

This topic helps you configure your security groups to route and receive network traffic appropriately. The following are a couple common use cases:

  • You turn on public accessibility for an Amazon Redshift cluster or an Amazon Redshift Serverless workgroup, but it isn't receiving traffic. For this you must configure an inbound rule to allow traffic to reach it from the internet.

  • Your cluster or workgroup isn't publicly accessible, and you use Redshift's pre-configured default VPC security group to allow inbound traffic. But you have a requirement to use a security group other than the default, and this custom security group doesn't allow inbound traffic. You must configure it to allow communication.

The following sections help you choose the correct response for each use case and show you how to configure network traffic per your requirements. You can optionally use the steps to set up communication from other private security groups.

Note

Network traffic settings in most cases aren't configured automatically in Amazon Redshift. This is because they can vary at a granular level, depending on whether the source of traffic is the internet or a private security group, and because security requirements vary.

Public accessibility with default or custom security group configuration

If you are creating or you already have a cluster or workgroup, perform the following configuration steps to make it publicly accessible. This applies both to when you choose the default security group or a custom security group:

  1. Find the network settings:

    • For a provisioned Amazon Redshift cluster, choose the Properties tab, and then under Network and security settings, select the VPC for your cluster.

    • For an Amazon Redshift Serverless workgroup, choose Workgroup configuration. Choose the workgroup from the list. Then, under Data access, in the Network and security panel, choose edit.

  2. Configure the Internet gateway and route table for your VPC. You start the configuration by choosing the VPC by name. It opens the VPC dashboard. To connect to a publicly accessible cluster or workgroup from the internet, an internet gateway must be attached to the route table. You can configure this by choosing Route tables in the VPC dashboard. Confirm that the internet gateway's target is set with source 0.0.0.0/0 or a public IP CIDR. The route table must be associated with the VPC where your cluster resides. For more information regarding setting up internet access for a VPC, like what is described here, see Enable internet access in the Amazon VPC documentation. For more information about configuring a route table, see Configure route tables.

  3. After you configure the internet gateway and route table, return to the network settings for Redshift. Open inbound access by choosing the security group and then choosing the Inbound rules. Choose Edit inbound rules.

  4. Choose the Protocol and Port for the inbound rule, or rules, per your requirements, to allow traffic from clients. For an RA3 cluster, select a port within the ranges 5431-5455 or 8191-8215. When you are finished, save each rule.

  5. Edit the Publicly accessible setting to enable it. You can do this from your cluster or workgroup's Actions menu.

When you turn on the publicly accessible setting, Redshift creates an Elastic IP address. It's a static IP address that's associated with your AWS account. Clients outside the VPC can use it to connect.

For more information about configuring your security group, see Amazon Redshift cluster security groups.

You can test your rules by connecting with a client, perform the following if you're connecting to Amazon Redshift Serverless. After you finish network configuration, connect with your client tool, such as Amazon Redshift RSQL. Using your Amazon Redshift Serverless domain as the host, enter the following:

rsql -h workgroup-name.account-id.region.amazonaws.com -U admin -d dev -p 5439

Private accessibility with default or custom security group configuration

When you don't communicate through the internet to your cluster or workgroup, it's referred to as privately accessible. If you chose the default security group when you created it, the security group includes the following default communication rules:

  • An inbound rule that allows traffic from all resources assigned to the security group.

  • An outbound rule that allows all outbound traffic. The destination for this rule is 0.0.0.0/0. In classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) notation, it represents all possible IP addresses.

You can view the rules in the console by selecting the security group for your cluster or workgroup.

If your cluster or workgroup and client both use the default security group, there isn't any additional configuration necessary to allow network traffic. But if you delete or change any rules in the default security group for Redshift or the client, this no longer applies. In this case, you must configure rules to allow inbound and outbound communication. A common security-group configuration is the following:

  • For a client Amazon EC2 instance:

    • An inbound rule that allows the IP address of the client.

    • An outbound rule that allows the IP address range (CIDR block) of all subnets provided for Redshift usage. Or your can specify 0.0.0.0/0, which is all IP address ranges.

  • For your Redshift cluster or workgroup:

    • An inbound rule that allows the client security group.

    • An outbound rule that allows traffic to 0.0.0.0/0. Typically, the outbound rule allows all outbound traffic. Optionally, you can add an outbound rule to allow traffic to the client security group. In this optional case, an outbound rule isn't always required, because response traffic for each request is allowed to reach the instance. For more details regarding request and response behavior, see Security groups in the Amazon VPC user guide.

If you change configuration for any subnets or security groups specified for Redshift usage, you might need to change traffic rules accordingly to keep communication open. For more information about creating inbound and outbound rules, see VPC CIDR blocks in the Amazon VPC user guide. For more information about connecting to Amazon Redshift from a client, see Configuring connections in Amazon Redshift.