The Multipart upload API enables you to upload large objects in parts. You can use this API to upload new large objects or make a copy of an existing object (see Operations on Objects).
Multipart uploading is a three-step process: You initiate the upload, you upload the object parts, and after you have uploaded all the parts, you complete the multipart upload. Upon receiving the complete multipart upload request, Amazon S3 constructs the object from the uploaded parts, and you can then access the object just as you would any other object in your bucket.
You can list of all your in-progress multipart uploads or get a list of the parts that you have uploaded for a specific multipart upload. Each of these operations is explained in this section.
Multipart Upload Initiation
When you send a request to initiate a multipart upload, Amazon S3 returns a response with an upload ID, which is a unique identifier for your multipart upload. You must include this upload ID whenever you upload parts, list the parts, complete an upload, or abort an upload. If you want to provide any metadata describing the object being uploaded, you must provide it in the request to initiate multipart upload.
When uploading a part, in addition to the upload ID, you must specify a part number. You can choose any part number between 1 and 10,000. A part number uniquely identifies a part and its position in the object you are uploading. If you upload a new part using the same part number as a previously uploaded part, the previously uploaded part is overwritten. Whenever you upload a part, Amazon S3 returns an ETag header in its response. For each part upload, you must record the part number and the ETag value. You need to include these values in the subsequent request to complete the multipart upload.
After you initiate multipart upload and upload one or more parts, you must either complete or abort multipart upload in order to stop getting charged for storage of the uploaded parts. Only after you either complete or abort multipart upload, Amazon S3 frees up the parts storage and stops charging you for the parts storage.
Multipart Upload Completion (or Abort)
When you complete a multipart upload, Amazon S3 creates an object by concatenating parts in ascending order based on the part number. If any object metadata was provided in the initiate multipart upload request, Amazon S3 associates that metadata with the object. After a successful complete request, the parts no longer exist. Your complete multipart upload request must include the upload ID and a list of both part numbers and corresponding ETag values. Amazon S3 response includes an ETag that uniquely identifies the combined object data. This ETag will not necessarily be an MD5 hash of the object data. You can optionally abort the multipart upload. After aborting a multipart upload, you cannot upload any part using that upload ID again. All storage that any parts from the aborted multipart upload consumed is then freed. If any part uploads were in-progress, they can still succeed or fail even after you aborted. To free all storage consumed by all parts, you must abort a multipart upload only after all part uploads have completed.
Multipart Upload Listings
You can list the parts of a specific multipart upload or all in-progress multipart uploads. The list parts operation returns the parts information that you have uploaded for a specific multipart upload. For each list parts request, Amazon S3 returns the parts information for the specified multipart upload, up to a maximum of 1000 parts. If there are more than 1000 parts in the multipart upload, you must send a series of list part requests to retrieve all the parts. Note that the returned list of parts doesn't include parts that haven't completed uploading.
Only use the returned listing for verification. You should not use the result of this listing when sending a complete multipart upload request. Instead, maintain your own list of the part numbers you specified when uploading parts and the corresponding ETag values that Amazon S3 returns.
Using the list multipart uploads operation, you can obtain a list of multipart uploads in progress. An in-progress multipart upload is an upload that you have initiated, but have not yet completed or aborted. Each request returns at most 1000 multipart uploads. If there are more than 1000 multipart uploads in progress, you need to send additional requests to retrieve the remaining multipart uploads.
In a distributed development environment, it is possible for your application to initiate several updates on the same object at the same time. Your application might initiate several multipart uploads using the same object key. For each of these uploads, your application can then upload parts and send a complete upload request to Amazon S3 to create the object. When the buckets have versioning enabled, completing a multipart upload always creates a new version. For buckets that do not have versioning enabled, it is possible that some other request received between the time when a multipart upload is initiated and when it is completed might take precedence.
It is possible for some other request received between the time you initiated a multipart upload and completed it to take precedence. For example, if another operation deletes a key after you initiate a multipart upload with that key, but before you complete it, the complete multipart upload response might indicate a successful object creation without you ever seeing the object.
Once you initiate a multipart upload, Amazon S3 retains all the parts until you either complete or abort the upload. Throughout its lifetime, you are billed for all storage, bandwidth, and requests for this multipart upload and its associated parts. If you abort the multipart upload, Amazon S3 deletes upload artifacts and any parts you have uploaded, and you are no longer billed for them. For more information on pricing, go to the Amazon S3 Pricing page.