Overview of monitoring Amazon RDS - Amazon Relational Database Service

Overview of monitoring Amazon RDS

Monitoring is an important part of maintaining the reliability, availability, and performance of Amazon RDS and your AWS solutions. To more easily debug multi-point failures, we recommend that you collect monitoring data from all parts of your AWS solution.

Monitoring plan

Before you start monitoring Amazon RDS, create a monitoring plan. This plan should answer the following questions:

  • What are your monitoring goals?

  • Which resources will you monitor?

  • How often will you monitor these resources?

  • Which monitoring tools will you use?

  • Who will perform the monitoring tasks?

  • Whom should be notified when something goes wrong?

Performance baseline

To achieve your monitoring goals, you need to establish a baseline. To do this, measure performance under different load conditions at various times in your Amazon RDS environment. You can monitor metrics such as the following:

  • Network throughput

  • Client connections

  • I/O for read, write, or metadata operations

  • Burst credit balances for your DB instances

We recommend that you store historical performance data for Amazon RDS. Using the stored data, you can compare current performance against past trends. You can also distinguish normal performance patterns from anomalies, and devise techniques to address issues.

Performance guidelines

In general, acceptable values for performance metrics depend on what your application is doing relative to your baseline. Investigate consistent or trending variances from your baseline. The following metrics are often the source of performance issues:

  • High CPU or RAM consumption – High values for CPU or RAM consumption might be appropriate, if they're in keeping with your goals for your application (like throughput or concurrency) and are expected.

  • Disk space consumption – Investigate disk space consumption if space used is consistently at or above 85 percent of the total disk space. See if it is possible to delete data from the instance or archive data to a different system to free up space.

  • Network traffic – For network traffic, talk with your system administrator to understand what expected throughput is for your domain network and internet connection. Investigate network traffic if throughput is consistently lower than expected.

  • Database connections – If you see high numbers of user connections and also decreases in instance performance and response time, consider constraining database connections. The best number of user connections for your DB instance varies based on your instance class and the complexity of the operations being performed. To determine the number of database connections, associate your DB instance with a parameter group where the User Connections parameter is set to a value other than 0 (unlimited). You can either use an existing parameter group or create a new one. For more information, see Working with DB parameter groups.

  • IOPS metrics – The expected values for IOPS metrics depend on disk specification and server configuration, so use your baseline to know what is typical. Investigate if values are consistently different than your baseline. For best IOPS performance, make sure that your typical working set fits into memory to minimize read and write operations.

When performance falls outside your established baseline, you might need to make changes to optimize your database availability for your workload. For example, you might need to change the instance class of your DB instance. Or you might need to change the number of DB instances and read replicas that are available for clients.

Monitoring tools

AWS provides various tools that you can use to monitor Amazon RDS. You can configure some of these tools to do the monitoring for you, and other tools require manual intervention.

Automated monitoring tools

We recommend that you automate monitoring tasks as much as possible.

Amazon RDS reporting tools

You can use the following automated tools to watch Amazon RDS and report when something is wrong:

  • Amazon RDS instance status — View details about the current status of your instance by using the Amazon RDS console, the AWS CLI command, or the RDS API.

  • Amazon RDS recommendations — Respond to automated recommendations for database resources, such as DB instances, read replicas, and DB parameter groups. For more information, see Viewing Amazon RDS recommendations.

  • Amazon RDS Performance Insights — Assess the load on your database, and determine when and where to take action. For more information, see Monitoring DB load with Performance Insights on Amazon RDS.

  • Amazon RDS Enhanced Monitoring — Look at metrics in real time for the operating system. For more information, see Monitoring the OS by using Enhanced Monitoring.

  • Amazon RDS events – Subscribe to Amazon RDS events to be notified when changes occur with a DB instance, DB snapshot, DB parameter group, or DB security group. For more information, see Using Amazon RDS event notification.

  • Amazon RDS database logs – View, download, or watch database log files using the Amazon RDS console or Amazon RDS API operations. You can also query some database log files that are loaded into database tables. For more information, see Working with Amazon RDS database log files.

Integrated monitoring tools

Amazon RDS integrates with Amazon CloudWatch, Amazon EventBridge, and AWS CloudTrail for additional monitoring capabilities.

  • Amazon CloudWatch – This service monitors your AWS resources and the applications you run on AWS in real time. You can use the following Amazon CloudWatch features with Amazon RDS:

    • Amazon CloudWatch metricsAmazon RDS automatically sends metrics to CloudWatch every minute for each active database. You don't get additional charges for Amazon RDS metrics in CloudWatch. For more information, see Monitoring Amazon RDS metrics with Amazon CloudWatch.

    • Amazon CloudWatch alarms – You can watch a single Amazon RDS metric over a specific time period. You can then perform one or more actions based on the value of the metric relative to a threshold that you set. For more information, see Monitoring Amazon RDS metrics with Amazon CloudWatch.

  • Amazon CloudWatch Logs – Most DB engines enable you to monitor, store, and access your database log files in CloudWatch Logs. For more information, see Amazon CloudWatch Logs User Guide.

  • Amazon EventBridge – is a serverless event bus service that makes it easy to connect your applications with data from a variety of sources. EventBridge delivers a stream of real-time data from your own applications, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications, and AWS services and routes that data to targets such as Lambda. This enables you to monitor events that happen in services, and build event-driven architectures. For more information, see Creating a rule that triggers on an Amazon RDS event.

  • AWS CloudTrail – You can view a record of actions taken by a user, role, or an AWS service in Amazon RDS. CloudTrail captures all API calls for Amazon RDS as events. These captures include calls from the Amazon RDS console and from code calls to the Amazon RDS API operations. If you create a trail, you can enable continuous delivery of CloudTrail events to an Amazon S3 bucket, including events for Amazon RDS. If you don't configure a trail, you can still view the most recent events in the CloudTrail console in Event history. For more information, see Working with AWS CloudTrail and Amazon RDS.

Manual monitoring tools

You need to manually monitor those items that the CloudWatch alarms don't cover. The Amazon RDS, CloudWatch, AWS Trusted Advisor and other AWS console dashboards provide an at-a-glance view of the state of your AWS environment. We recommend that you also check the log files on your DB instance.

  • From the Amazon RDS console, you can monitor the following items for your resources:

    • The number of connections to a DB instance

    • The amount of read and write operations to a DB instance

    • The amount of storage that a DB instance is currently using

    • The amount of memory and CPU being used for a DB instance

    • The amount of network traffic to and from a DB instance

  • From the Trusted Advisor dashboard, you can review the following cost optimization, security, fault tolerance, and performance improvement checks:

    • Amazon RDS Idle DB Instances

    • Amazon RDS Security Group Access Risk

    • Amazon RDS Backups

    • Amazon RDS Multi-AZ

    For more information on these checks, see Trusted Advisor best practices (checks).

  • CloudWatch home page shows:

    • Current alarms and status

    • Graphs of alarms and resources

    • Service health status

    In addition, you can use CloudWatch to do the following:

    • Create customized dashboards to monitor the services that you care about.

    • Graph metric data to troubleshoot issues and discover trends.

    • Search and browse all your AWS resource metrics.

    • Create and edit alarms to be notified of problems.