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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

PostgreSQL Database Log Files

RDS PostgreSQL generates query and error logs. We write auto-vacuum info and rds_admin actions to the error log. Postgres also logs connections/disconnections/checkpoints to the error log. For more information, see http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.4/static/runtime-config-logging.html

You can set the retention period for system logs using the rds.log_retention_period parameter in the DB parameter group associated with your DB instance. The unit for this parameter is minutes; for example, a setting of 1440 would retain logs for one day. The default value is 4320 (three days). The maximum value is 10080 (seven days). Note that your instance must have enough allocated storage to contain the retained log files.

You can enable query logging for your PostgreSQL DB instance by setting two parameters in the DB parameter group associated with your DB instance: log_statement and log_min_duration_statement. The log_statement parameter controls which SQL statements are logged. We recommend setting this parameter to all to log all statements; the default value is none. Alternatively, you can set this value to ddl to log all data definition language (DDL) statements (CREATE, ALTER, DROP, etc.) or to mod to log all DDL and data modification language (DML) statements (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc.).

The log_min_duration_statement parameter sets the limit in milliseconds of a statement to be logged. All SQL statements that run longer than the parameter setting are logged. This parameter is disabled and set to minus 1 (-1) by default. Enabling this parameter can help you find unoptimized queries. For more information on these settings, see Error Reporting and Logging in the PostgreSQL documentation.

If you are new to setting parameters in a DB parameter group and associating that parameter group with a DB instance, see Working with DB Parameter Groups

The following steps show how to set up query logging:

  1. Set the log_statement parameter to all. The following example shows the information that is written to the postgres.log file:

    2013-11-05 16:48:56 UTC::@:[2952]:LOG:  received SIGHUP, reloading configuration files
    2013-11-05 16:48:56 UTC::@:[2952]:LOG:  parameter "log_min_duration_statement" changed to "1" 

    Additional information is written to the postgres.log file when you execute a query. The following example shows the type of information written to the file after a query:

    2013-11-05 16:41:07 UTC::@:[2955]:LOG:  checkpoint starting: time
    2013-11-05 16:41:07 UTC::@:[2955]:LOG:  checkpoint complete: wrote 1 buffers (0.3%); 0 transaction log file(s) added, 0 removed, 1 recycled; write=0.000 s, sync=0.003 s, total=0.012 s; sync files=1, longest=0.003 s, average=0.003 s
    2013-11-05 16:45:14 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[8839]:LOG:  statement: SELECT d.datname as "Name",
    	       pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(d.datdba) as "Owner",
    	       pg_catalog.pg_encoding_to_char(d.encoding) as "Encoding",
    	       d.datcollate as "Collate",
    	       d.datctype as "Ctype",
    	       pg_catalog.array_to_string(d.datacl, E'\n') AS "Access privileges"
    	FROM pg_catalog.pg_database d
    	ORDER BY 1;
    2013-11-05 16:45: 
  2. Set the log_min_duration_statement parameter. The following example shows the information that is written to the postgres.log file when the parameter is set to 1:

    2013-11-05 16:48:56 UTC::@:[2952]:LOG:  received SIGHUP, reloading configuration files
    2013-11-05 16:48:56 UTC::@:[2952]:LOG:  parameter "log_min_duration_statement" changed to "1" 

    Additional information is written to the postgres.log file when you execute a query that exceeds the duration parameter setting. The following example shows the type of information written to the file after a query:

    2013-11-05 16:51:10 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  statement: SELECT c2.relname, i.indisprimary, i.indisunique, i.indisclustered, i.indisvalid, pg_catalog.pg_get_indexdef(i.indexrelid, 0, true),
    	  pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(con.oid, true), contype, condeferrable, condeferred, c2.reltablespace
    	FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_class c2, pg_catalog.pg_index i
    	  LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_constraint con ON (conrelid = i.indrelid AND conindid = i.indexrelid AND contype IN ('p','u','x'))
    	WHERE c.oid = '1255' AND c.oid = i.indrelid AND i.indexrelid = c2.oid
    	ORDER BY i.indisprimary DESC, i.indisunique DESC, c2.relname;
    2013-11-05 16:51:10 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  duration: 3.367 ms
    2013-11-05 16:51:10 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  statement: SELECT c.oid::pg_catalog.regclass FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_inherits i WHERE c.oid=i.inhparent AND i.inhrelid = '1255' ORDER BY inhseqno;
    2013-11-05 16:51:10 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  duration: 1.002 ms
    2013-11-05 16:51:10 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  statement: SELECT c.oid::pg_catalog.regclass FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_inherits i WHERE c.oid=i.inhrelid AND i.inhparent = '1255' ORDER BY c.oid::pg_catalog.regclass::pg_catalog.text;
    2013-11-05 16:51:18 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  statement: select proname from pg_proc;
    2013-11-05 16:51:18 UTC:[local]:master@postgres:[9193]:LOG:  duration: 3.469 ms