Access logs for your Application Load Balancer - Elastic Load Balancing

Access logs for your Application Load Balancer

Elastic Load Balancing provides access logs that capture detailed information about requests sent to your load balancer. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses. You can use these access logs to analyze traffic patterns and troubleshoot issues.

Access logs is an optional feature of Elastic Load Balancing that is disabled by default. After you enable access logs for your load balancer, Elastic Load Balancing captures the logs and stores them in the Amazon S3 bucket that you specify as compressed files. You can disable access logs at any time.

You are charged storage costs for Amazon S3, but not charged for the bandwidth used by Elastic Load Balancing to send log files to Amazon S3. For more information about storage costs, see Amazon S3 pricing.

Access log files

Elastic Load Balancing publishes a log file for each load balancer node every 5 minutes. Log delivery is eventually consistent. The load balancer can deliver multiple logs for the same period. This usually happens if the site has high traffic.

The file names of the access logs use the following format:

bucket[/prefix]/AWSLogs/aws-account-id/elasticloadbalancing/region/yyyy/mm/dd/aws-account-id_elasticloadbalancing_region_app.load-balancer-id_end-time_ip-address_random-string.log.gz
bucket

The name of the S3 bucket.

prefix

The prefix (logical hierarchy) in the bucket. If you don't specify a prefix, the logs are placed at the root level of the bucket. The prefix that you specify must not include AWSLogs. We add the portion of the file name starting with AWSLogs after the bucket name and prefix that you specify.

aws-account-id

The AWS account ID of the owner.

region

The Region for your load balancer and S3 bucket.

yyyy/mm/dd

The date that the log was delivered.

load-balancer-id

The resource ID of the load balancer. If the resource ID contains any forward slashes (/), they are replaced with periods (.).

end-time

The date and time that the logging interval ended. For example, an end time of 20140215T2340Z contains entries for requests made between 23:35 and 23:40 in UTC or Zulu time.

ip-address

The IP address of the load balancer node that handled the request. For an internal load balancer, this is a private IP address.

random-string

A system-generated random string.

The following is an example log file name:

s3://my-bucket/prefix/AWSLogs/123456789012/elasticloadbalancing/us-east-2/2016/05/01/123456789012_elasticloadbalancing_us-east-2_app.my-loadbalancer.1234567890abcdef_20140215T2340Z_172.160.001.192_20sg8hgm.log.gz

You can store your log files in your bucket for as long as you want, but you can also define Amazon S3 lifecycle rules to archive or delete log files automatically. For more information, see Object lifecycle management in the Amazon Simple Storage Service User Guide.

Access log entries

Elastic Load Balancing logs requests sent to the load balancer, including requests that never made it to the targets. For example, if a client sends a malformed request, or there are no healthy targets to respond to the request, the request is still logged. Elastic Load Balancing does not log health check requests.

Each log entry contains the details of a single request (or connection in the case of WebSockets) made to the load balancer. For WebSockets, an entry is written only after the connection is closed. If the upgraded connection can't be established, the entry is the same as for an HTTP or HTTPS request.

Important

Elastic Load Balancing logs requests on a best-effort basis. We recommend that you use access logs to understand the nature of the requests, not as a complete accounting of all requests.

Syntax

The following table describes the fields of an access log entry, in order. All fields are delimited by spaces. When new fields are introduced, they are added to the end of the log entry. You should ignore any fields at the end of the log entry that you were not expecting.

Field Description

type

The type of request or connection. The possible values are as follows (ignore any other values):

  • http — HTTP

  • https — HTTP over TLS

  • h2 — HTTP/2 over TLS

  • grpcs— gRPC over TLS

  • ws — WebSockets

  • wss — WebSockets over TLS

time

The time when the load balancer generated a response to the client, in ISO 8601 format. For WebSockets, this is the time when the connection is closed.

elb

The resource ID of the load balancer. If you are parsing access log entries, note that resources IDs can contain forward slashes (/).

client:port

The IP address and port of the requesting client. If there is a proxy in front of the load balancer, this field contains the IP address of the proxy.

target:port

The IP address and port of the target that processed this request.

If the client didn't send a full request, the load balancer can't dispatch the request to a target, and this value is set to -.

If the target is a Lambda function, this value is set to -.

If the request is blocked by AWS WAF, this value is set to - and the value of elb_status_code is set to 403.

request_processing_time

The total time elapsed (in seconds, with millisecond precision) from the time the load balancer received the request until the time it sent the request to a target.

This value is set to -1 if the load balancer can't dispatch the request to a target. This can happen if the target closes the connection before the idle timeout or if the client sends a malformed request.

This value can also be set to -1 if the registered target does not respond before the idle timeout.

If AWS WAF is enabled for your Application Load Balancer, the time it takes for the client to send the required data for POST requests is counted towards request_processing_time.

target_processing_time

The total time elapsed (in seconds, with millisecond precision) from the time the load balancer sent the request to a target until the target started to send the response headers.

This value is set to -1 if the load balancer can't dispatch the request to a target. This can happen if the target closes the connection before the idle timeout or if the client sends a malformed request.

This value can also be set to -1 if the registered target does not respond before the idle timeout.

If AWS WAF is not enabled for your Application Load Balancer, the time it takes for the client to send the required data for POST requests is counted towards target_processing_time.

response_processing_time

The total time elapsed (in seconds, with millisecond precision) from the time the load balancer received the response header from the target until it started to send the response to the client. This includes both the queuing time at the load balancer and the connection acquisition time from the load balancer to the client.

This value is set to -1 if the load balancer can't send the request to a target. This can happen if the target closes the connection before the idle timeout or if the client sends a malformed request.

elb_status_code

The status code of the response from the load balancer.

target_status_code

The status code of the response from the target. This value is recorded only if a connection was established to the target and the target sent a response. Otherwise, it is set to -.

received_bytes

The size of the request, in bytes, received from the client (requester). For HTTP requests, this includes the headers. For WebSockets, this is the total number of bytes received from the client on the connection.

sent_bytes

The size of the response, in bytes, sent to the client (requester). For HTTP requests, this includes the headers. For WebSockets, this is the total number of bytes sent to the client on the connection.

"request"

The request line from the client, enclosed in double quotes and logged using the following format: HTTP method + protocol://host:port/uri + HTTP version. The load balancer preserves the URL sent by the client, as is, when recording the request URI. It does not set the content type for the access log file. When you process this field, consider how the client sent the URL.

"user_agent"

A User-Agent string that identifies the client that originated the request, enclosed in double quotes. The string consists of one or more product identifiers, product[/version]. If the string is longer than 8 KB, it is truncated.

ssl_cipher

[HTTPS listener] The SSL cipher. This value is set to - if the listener is not an HTTPS listener.

ssl_protocol

[HTTPS listener] The SSL protocol. This value is set to - if the listener is not an HTTPS listener.

target_group_arn

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the target group.

"trace_id"

The contents of the X-Amzn-Trace-Id header, enclosed in double quotes.

"domain_name"

[HTTPS listener] The SNI domain provided by the client during the TLS handshake, enclosed in double quotes. This value is set to - if the client doesn't support SNI or the domain doesn't match a certificate and the default certificate is presented to the client.

"chosen_cert_arn"

[HTTPS listener] The ARN of the certificate presented to the client, enclosed in double quotes. This value is set to session-reused if the session is reused. This value is set to - if the listener is not an HTTPS listener.

matched_rule_priority

The priority value of the rule that matched the request. If a rule matched, this is a value from 1 to 50,000. If no rule matched and the default action was taken, this value is set to 0. If an error occurs during rules evaluation, it is set to -1. For any other error, it is set to -.

request_creation_time

The time when the load balancer received the request from the client, in ISO 8601 format.

"actions_executed"

The actions taken when processing the request, enclosed in double quotes. This value is a comma-separated list that can include the values described in Actions taken. If no action was taken, such as for a malformed request, this value is set to -.

"redirect_url"

The URL of the redirect target for the location header of the HTTP response, enclosed in double quotes. If no redirect actions were taken, this value is set to -.

"error_reason"

The error reason code, enclosed in double quotes. If the request failed, this is one of the error codes described in Error reason codes. If the actions taken do not include an authenticate action or the target is not a Lambda function, this value is set to -.

"target:port_list"

A space-delimited list of IP addresses and ports for the targets that processed this request, enclosed in double quotes. Currently, this list can contain one item and it matches the target:port field.

If the client didn't send a full request, the load balancer can't dispatch the request to a target, and this value is set to -.

If the target is a Lambda function, this value is set to -.

If the request is blocked by AWS WAF, this value is set to - and the value of elb_status_code is set to 403.

"target_status_code_list"

A space-delimited list of status codes from the responses of the targets, enclosed in double quotes. Currently, this list can contain one item and it matches the target_status_code field.

This value is recorded only if a connection was established to the target and the target sent a response. Otherwise, it is set to -.

"classification"

The classification for desync mitigation, enclosed in double quotes. If the request does not comply with RFC 7230, the possible values are Acceptable, Ambiguous, and Severe.

If the request complies with RFC 7230, this value is set to -.

"classification_reason"

The classification reason code, enclosed in double quotes. If the request does not comply with RFC 7230, this is one of the classification codes described in Classification reasons. If the request complies with RFC 7230, this value is set to -.

Actions taken

The load balancer stores the actions that it takes in the actions_executed field of the access log.

  • authenticate — The load balancer validated the session, authenticated the user, and added the user information to the request headers, as specified by the rule configuration.

  • fixed-response — The load balancer issued a fixed response, as specified by the rule configuration.

  • forward — The load balancer forwarded the request to a target, as specified by the rule configuration.

  • redirect — The load balancer redirected the request to another URL, as specified by the rule configuration.

  • waf — The load balancer forwarded the request to AWS WAF to determine whether the request should be forwarded to the target. If this is the final action, AWS WAF determined that the request should be rejected.

  • waf-failed — The load balancer attempted to forward the request to AWS WAF, but this process failed.

Classification reasons

If a request does not comply with RFC 7230, the load balancer stores one of the following codes in the classification_reason field of the access log. For more information, see Desync mitigation mode.

Code Description Classification

AmbiguousUri

The request URI contains control characters.

Ambiguous

BadContentLength

The Content-Length header contains a value that cannot be parsed or is not a valid number.

Severe

BadHeader

A header contains a null character or carriage return.

Severe

BadTransferEncoding

The Transfer-Encoding header contains a bad value.

Severe

BadUri

The request URI contains a null character or carriage return.

Severe

BadMethod

The request method is malformed.

Severe

BadVersion

The request version is malformed.

Severe

BothTeClPresent

The request contains both a Transfer-Encoding header and a Content-Length header.

Ambiguous

DuplicateContentLength

There are multiple Content-Length headers with the same value.

Ambiguous

EmptyHeader

A header is empty or there is a line with only spaces.

Ambiguous

GetHeadZeroContentLength

There is a Content-Length header with a value of 0 for a GET or HEAD request.

Acceptable

MultipleContentLength

There are multiple Content-Length headers with different values.

Severe

MultipleTransferEncodingChunked

There are multiple Transfer-Encoding: chunked headers.

Severe

NonCompliantHeader

A header contains a non-ASCII or control character.

Acceptable

NonCompliantVersion

The request version contains a bad value.

Acceptable

SpaceInUri

The request URI contains a space that is not URL encoded.

Acceptable

SuspiciousHeader

There is a header that can be normalized to Transfer-Encoding or Content-Length using common text normalization techniques.

Ambiguous

UndefinedContentLengthSemantics

There is no Content-Length header defined for a GET or HEAD request.

Ambiguous

UndefinedTransferEncodingSemantics

There is no Transfer-Encoding header defined for GET or HEAD request.

Ambiguous

Error reason codes

If the load balancer cannot complete an authenticate action, the load balancer stores one of the following reason codes in the error_reason field of the access log. The load balancer also increments the corresponding CloudWatch metric. For more information, see Authenticate users using an Application Load Balancer.

Code Description Metric

AuthInvalidCookie

The authentication cookie is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthInvalidGrantError

The authorization grant code from the token endpoint is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthInvalidIdToken

The ID token is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthInvalidStateParam

The state parameter is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthInvalidTokenResponse

The response from the token endpoint is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthInvalidUserinfoResponse

The response from the user info endpoint is not valid.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthMissingCodeParam

The authentication response from the authorization endpoint is missing a query parameter named 'code'.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthMissingHostHeader

The authentication response from the authorization endpoint is missing a host header field.

ELBAuthError

AuthMissingStateParam

The authentication response from the authorization endpoint is missing a query parameter named 'state'.

ELBAuthFailure

AuthTokenEpRequestFailed

There is an error response (non-2XX) from the token endpoint.

ELBAuthError

AuthTokenEpRequestTimeout

The load balancer is unable to communicate with the token endpoint.

ELBAuthError

AuthUnhandledException

The load balancer encountered an unhandled exception.

ELBAuthError

AuthUserinfoEpRequestFailed

There is an error response (non-2XX) from the IdP user info endpoint.

ELBAuthError

AuthUserinfoEpRequestTimeout

The load balancer is unable to communicate with the IdP user info endpoint.

ELBAuthError

AuthUserinfoResponseSizeExceeded

The size of the claims returned by the IdP exceeded 11K bytes.

ELBAuthUserClaimsSizeExceeded

If a request to a weighted target group fails, the load balancer stores one of the following error codes in the error_reason field of the access log.

Code Description

AWSALBTGCookieInvalid

The AWSALBTG cookie, which is used with weighted target groups, is not valid. For example, the load balancer returns this error when cookie values are URL encoded.

WeightedTargetGroupsUnhandledException

The load balancer encountered an unhandled exception.

If a request to a Lambda function fails, the load balancer stores one of the following reason codes in the error_reason field of the access log. The load balancer also increments the corresponding CloudWatch metric. For more information, see the Lambda Invoke action.

Code Description Metric

LambdaAccessDenied

The load balancer did not have permission to invoke the Lambda function.

LambdaUserError

LambdaBadRequest

Lambda invocation failed because the client request headers or body did not contain only UTF-8 characters.

LambdaUserError

LambdaConnectionError

The load balancer cannot connect to Lambda.

LambdaInternalError

LambdaConnectionTimeout

An attempt to connect to Lambda timed out.

LambdaInternalError

LambdaEC2AccessDeniedException

Amazon EC2 denied access to Lambda during function initialization.

LambdaUserError

LambdaEC2ThrottledException

Amazon EC2 throttled Lambda during function initialization.

LambdaUserError

LambdaEC2UnexpectedException

Amazon EC2 encountered an unexpected exception during function initialization.

LambdaUserError

LambdaENILimitReachedException

Lambda couldn't create a network interface in the VPC specified in the configuration of the Lambda function because the limit for network interfaces was exceeded.

LambdaUserError

LambdaInvalidResponse

The response from the Lambda function is malformed or is missing required fields.

LambdaUserError

LambdaInvalidRuntimeException

The specified version of the Lambda runtime is not supported.

LambdaUserError

LambdaInvalidSecurityGroupIDException

The security group ID specified in the configuration of the Lambda function is not valid.

LambdaUserError

LambdaInvalidSubnetIDException

The subnet ID specified in the configuration of the Lambda function is not valid.

LambdaUserError

LambdaInvalidZipFileException

Lambda could not unzip the specified function zip file.

LambdaUserError

LambdaKMSAccessDeniedException

Lambda could not decrypt environment variables because access to the KMS key was denied. Check the KMS permissions of the Lambda function.

LambdaUserError

LambdaKMSDisabledException

Lambda could not decrypt environment variables because the specified KMS key is disabled. Check the KMS key settings of the Lambda function.

LambdaUserError

LambdaKMSInvalidStateException

Lambda could not decrypt environment variables because the state of the KMS key is not valid. Check the KMS key settings of the Lambda function.

LambdaUserError

LambdaKMSNotFoundException

Lambda could not decrypt environment variables because the KMS key was not found. Check the KMS key settings of the Lambda function.

LambdaUserError

LambdaRequestTooLarge

The size of the request body exceeded 1 MB.

LambdaUserError

LambdaResourceNotFound

The Lambda function could not be found.

LambdaUserError

LambdaResponseTooLarge

The size of the response exceeded 1 MB.

LambdaUserError

LambdaServiceException

Lambda encountered an internal error.

LambdaInternalError

LambdaSubnetIPAddressLimitReachedException

Lambda could not set up VPC access for the Lambda function because one or more subnets have no available IP addresses.

LambdaUserError

LambdaThrottling

The Lambda function was throttled because there were too many requests.

LambdaUserError

LambdaUnhandled

The Lambda function encountered an unhandled exception.

LambdaUserError

LambdaUnhandledException

The load balancer encountered an unhandled exception.

LambdaInternalError

LambdaWebsocketNotSupported

WebSockets are not supported with Lambda.

LambdaUserError

If the load balancer encounters an error when forwarding requests to AWS WAF, it stores one of the following error codes in the error_reason field of the access log.

Code Description

WAFConnectionError

The load balancer cannot connect to AWS WAF.

WAFConnectionTimeout

The connection to AWS WAF timed out.

WAFResponseReadTimeout

A request to AWS WAF timed out.

WAFServiceError

AWS WAF returned a 5XX error.

WAFUnhandledException

The load balancer encountered an unhandled exception.

Example log entries

The following are example log entries. Note that the text appears on multiple lines only to make them easier to read.

Example HTTP Entry

The following is an example log entry for an HTTP listener (port 80 to port 80):

http 2018-07-02T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 192.168.131.39:2817 10.0.0.1:80 0.000 0.001 0.000 200 200 34 366 "GET http://www.example.com:80/ HTTP/1.1" "curl/7.46.0" - - arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337262-36d228ad5d99923122bbe354" "-" "-" 0 2018-07-02T22:22:48.364000Z "forward" "-" "-" "10.0.0.1:80" "200" "-" "-"

Example HTTPS Entry

The following is an example log entry for an HTTPS listener (port 443 to port 80):

https 2018-07-02T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 192.168.131.39:2817 10.0.0.1:80 0.086 0.048 0.037 200 200 0 57 "GET https://www.example.com:443/ HTTP/1.1" "curl/7.46.0" ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 TLSv1.2 arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337281-1d84f3d73c47ec4e58577259" "www.example.com" "arn:aws:acm:us-east-2:123456789012:certificate/12345678-1234-1234-1234-123456789012" 1 2018-07-02T22:22:48.364000Z "authenticate,forward" "-" "-" "10.0.0.1:80" "200" "-" "-"

Example HTTP/2 Entry

The following is an example log entry for an HTTP/2 stream.

h2 2018-07-02T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 10.0.1.252:48160 10.0.0.66:9000 0.000 0.002 0.000 200 200 5 257 "GET https://10.0.2.105:773/ HTTP/2.0" "curl/7.46.0" ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 TLSv1.2 arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337327-72bd00b0343d75b906739c42" "-" "-" 1 2018-07-02T22:22:48.364000Z "redirect" "https://example.com:80/" "-" "10.0.0.66:9000" "200" "-" "-"

Example WebSockets Entry

The following is an example log entry for a WebSockets connection.

ws 2018-07-02T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 10.0.0.140:40914 10.0.1.192:8010 0.001 0.003 0.000 101 101 218 587 "GET http://10.0.0.30:80/ HTTP/1.1" "-" - - arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337364-23a8c76965a2ef7629b185e3" "-" "-" 1 2018-07-02T22:22:48.364000Z "forward" "-" "-" "10.0.1.192:8010" "101" "-" "-"

Example Secured WebSockets Entry

The following is an example log entry for a secured WebSockets connection.

wss 2018-07-02T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 10.0.0.140:44244 10.0.0.171:8010 0.000 0.001 0.000 101 101 218 786 "GET https://10.0.0.30:443/ HTTP/1.1" "-" ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 TLSv1.2 arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-west-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337364-23a8c76965a2ef7629b185e3" "-" "-" 1 2018-07-02T22:22:48.364000Z "forward" "-" "-" "10.0.0.171:8010" "101" "-" "-"

Example Entries for Lambda Functions

The following is an example log entry for a request to a Lambda function that succeeded:

http 2018-11-30T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 192.168.131.39:2817 - 0.000 0.001 0.000 200 200 34 366 "GET http://www.example.com:80/ HTTP/1.1" "curl/7.46.0" - - arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337364-23a8c76965a2ef7629b185e3" "-" "-" 0 2018-11-30T22:22:48.364000Z "forward" "-" "-" "-" "-" "-" "-"

The following is an example log entry for a request to a Lambda function that failed:

http 2018-11-30T22:23:00.186641Z app/my-loadbalancer/50dc6c495c0c9188 192.168.131.39:2817 - 0.000 0.001 0.000 502 - 34 366 "GET http://www.example.com:80/ HTTP/1.1" "curl/7.46.0" - - arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:us-east-2:123456789012:targetgroup/my-targets/73e2d6bc24d8a067 "Root=1-58337364-23a8c76965a2ef7629b185e3" "-" "-" 0 2018-11-30T22:22:48.364000Z "forward" "-" "LambdaInvalidResponse" "-" "-" "-" "-"

Processing access log files

The access log files are compressed. If you open the files using the Amazon S3 console, they are uncompressed and the information is displayed. If you download the files, you must uncompress them to view the information.

If there is a lot of demand on your website, your load balancer can generate log files with gigabytes of data. You might not be able to process such a large amount of data using line-by-line processing. Therefore, you might have to use analytical tools that provide parallel processing solutions. For example, you can use the following analytical tools to analyze and process access logs: