Lambda execution environment - AWS Lambda

Lambda execution environment

Lambda invokes your function in an execution environment, which provides a secure and isolated runtime environment. The execution environment manages the resources required to run your function. The execution environment also provides lifecycle support for the function's runtime and any external extensions associated with your function.

The function's runtime communicates with Lambda using the Runtime API. Extensions communicate with Lambda using the Extensions API. Extensions can also receive log messages and other telemetry from the function by using the Telemetry API.


            Architecture diagram of the execution environment.

When you create your Lambda function, you specify configuration information, such as the amount of memory available and the maximum execution time allowed for your function. Lambda uses this information to set up the execution environment.

The function's runtime and each external extension are processes that run within the execution environment. Permissions, resources, credentials, and environment variables are shared between the function and the extensions.

Lambda execution environment lifecycle


            The Init  phase is followed by one or more function invocations. When there are no
              invocation requests, Lambda  initiates the Shutdown phase.

Each phase starts with an event that Lambda sends to the runtime and to all registered extensions. The runtime and each extension indicate completion by sending a Next API request. Lambda freezes the execution environment when the runtime and each extension have completed and there are no pending events.

Init phase

In the Init phase, Lambda performs three tasks:

  • Start all extensions (Extension init)

  • Bootstrap the runtime (Runtime init)

  • Run the function's static code (Function init)

  • Run any beforeCheckpoint runtime hooks (Lambda SnapStart only)

The Init phase ends when the runtime and all extensions signal that they are ready by sending a Next API request. The Init phase is limited to 10 seconds. If all three tasks do not complete within 10 seconds, Lambda retries the Init phase at the time of the first function invocation.

When Lambda SnapStart is activated, the Init phase happens when you publish a function version. Lambda saves a snapshot of the memory and disk state of the initialized execution environment, persists the encrypted snapshot, and caches it for low-latency access. If you have a beforeCheckpoint runtime hook, then the code runs at the end of Init phase.

Note

The 10-second timeout doesn't apply to SnapStart functions. When Lambda creates a snapshot, your initialization code can run for up to 15 minutes.

Restore phase (Lambda SnapStart only)

When you first invoke a SnapStart function and as the function scales up, Lambda resumes new execution environments from the persisted snapshot instead of initializing the function from scratch. If you have an afterRestore() runtime hook, the code runs at the end of the Restore phase. You are charged for the duration of afterRestore() runtime hooks. The runtime (JVM) must load and afterRestore() runtime hooks must complete within the timeout limit (2 seconds). Otherwise, you'll get a SnapStartTimeoutException. When the Restore phase completes, Lambda invokes the function handler (the Invoke phase).

Invoke phase

When a Lambda function is invoked in response to a Next API request, Lambda sends an Invoke event to the runtime and to each extension.

The function's timeout setting limits the duration of the entire Invoke phase. For example, if you set the function timeout as 360 seconds, the function and all extensions need to complete within 360 seconds. Note that there is no independent post-invoke phase. The duration is the sum of all invocation time (runtime + extensions) and is not calculated until the function and all extensions have finished executing.

The invoke phase ends after the runtime and all extensions signal that they are done by sending a Next API request.

If the Lambda function crashes or times out during the Invoke phase, Lambda resets the execution environment. The reset behaves like a Shutdown event. First, Lambda shuts down the runtime. Then Lambda sends a Shutdown event to each registered external extension. The event includes the reason for the shutdown. If another Invoke event results in this execution environment being reused, Lambda initializes the runtime and extensions as part of the next invocation.

Note

The Lambda reset does not clear the /tmp directory content prior to the next init phase. This behavior is consistent with the regular shutdown phase.


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Shutdown phase

When Lambda is about to shut down the runtime, it sends a Shutdown event to each registered external extension. Extensions can use this time for final cleanup tasks. The Shutdown event is a response to a Next API request.

Duration: The entire Shutdown phase is capped at 2 seconds. If the runtime or any extension does not respond, Lambda terminates it via a signal (SIGKILL).

After the function and all extensions have completed, Lambda maintains the execution environment for some time in anticipation of another function invocation. In effect, Lambda freezes the execution environment. When the function is invoked again, Lambda thaws the environment for reuse. Reusing the execution environment has the following implications:

  • Objects declared outside of the function's handler method remain initialized, providing additional optimization when the function is invoked again. For example, if your Lambda function establishes a database connection, instead of reestablishing the connection, the original connection is used in subsequent invocations. We recommend adding logic in your code to check if a connection exists before creating a new one.

  • Each execution environment provides between 512 MB and 10,240 MB, in 1-MB increments, of disk space in the /tmp directory. The directory content remains when the execution environment is frozen, providing a transient cache that can be used for multiple invocations. You can add extra code to check if the cache has the data that you stored. For more information on deployment size limits, see Lambda quotas.

  • Background processes or callbacks that were initiated by your Lambda function and did not complete when the function ended resume if Lambda reuses the execution environment. Make sure that any background processes or callbacks in your code are complete before the code exits.

When you write your function code, do not assume that Lambda automatically reuses the execution environment for subsequent function invocations. Other factors may dictate a need for Lambda to create a new execution environment, which can lead to unexpected results, such as database connection failures.