Amazon Neptune
User Guide (API Version 2017-11-29)

Encrypting Neptune Resources at Rest

Neptune encrypted instances provide an additional layer of data protection by helping to secure your data from unauthorized access to the underlying storage. You can use Neptune encryption to increase data protection of your applications that are deployed in the cloud. You can also use it to fulfill compliance requirements for data-at-rest encryption.

To manage the keys used for encrypting and decrypting your Neptune resources, you use AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). AWS KMS combines secure, highly available hardware and software to provide a key management system scaled for the cloud. Using AWS KMS, you can create encryption keys and define the policies that control how these keys can be used. AWS KMS supports AWS CloudTrail, so you can audit key usage to verify that keys are being used appropriately. You can use your AWS KMS keys in combination with Neptune and supported AWS services such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), and Amazon Redshift. For a list of services that support AWS KMS, see How AWS Services Use AWS KMS in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

All logs, backups, and snapshots are encrypted for a Neptune encrypted instance.

Enabling Encryption for a Neptune DB Instance

To enable encryption for a new Neptune DB instance, choose Yes in the Enable encryption section on the Neptune console. For information about creating a Neptune DB instance, see Getting Started with Neptune.

When you create an encrypted Neptune DB instance, you can also supply the AWS KMS key identifier for your encryption key. If you don't specify an AWS KMS key identifier, Neptune uses your default Amazon RDS encryption key (aws/rds) for your new Neptune DB instance. AWS KMS creates your default encryption key for Neptune for your AWS account. Your AWS account has a different default encryption key for each AWS Region.

After you create an encrypted Neptune DB instance, you can't change the encryption key for that instance. So, be sure to determine your encryption key requirements before you create your encrypted Neptune DB instance.

You can use the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of a key from another account to encrypt a Neptune DB instance. If you create a Neptune DB instance with the same AWS account that owns the AWS KMS encryption key that's used to encrypt that new Neptune DB instance, the AWS KMS key ID that you pass can be the AWS KMS key alias instead of the key's ARN.

Important

If Neptune loses access to the encryption key for a Neptune DB instance—for example, when Neptune access to a key is revoked—the encrypted DB instance is placed into a terminal state and can only be restored from a backup. We strongly recommend that you always enable backups for encrypted NeptuneDB instances to guard against the loss of encrypted data in your databases.

Limitations of Neptune Encryption

The following limitations exist for encrypting Neptune clusters:

  • You can only enable encryption for a DB instance when you create it, not after the it has been created.

    However, because you can encrypt a copy of an unencrypted DB snapshot, you can effectively add encryption to an unencrypted DB instance. That is, you can create a snapshot of your DB instance, and then create an encrypted copy of that snapshot. You can then restore a DB instance from the encrypted snapshot, and thus create an encrypted copy of your original DB instance.

  • DB instances that are encrypted can't be modified to disable encryption.

  • You can't have an encrypted Read Replica of an unencrypted DB instance, or an unencrypted Read Replica of an encrypted DB instance.

  • Encrypted Read Replicas must be encrypted with the same key as the source DB instance.

  • You can't convert an unencrypted DB cluster to an encrypted one.

    However, you can restore an unencrypted DB cluster snapshot to an encrypted DB cluster. To do this, specify a KMS encryption key when you restore from the unencrypted DB cluster snapshot.