Encryption in Amazon OpenSearch Serverless - Amazon OpenSearch Service

Encryption in Amazon OpenSearch Serverless

Encryption at rest

Each Amazon OpenSearch Serverless collection that you create is protected with encryption of data at rest, a security feature that helps prevent unauthorized access to your data. Encryption at rest uses AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) to store and manage your encryption keys. It uses the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm with 256-bit keys (AES-256) to perform the encryption.

Encryption policies

With encryption policies, you can manage many collections at scale by automatically assigning an encryption key to newly created collections that match a specific name or pattern.

When you create an encryption policy, you can either specify a prefix, which is a wildcard-based matching rule such as MyCollection*, or enter a single collection name. Then, when you create a collection that matches that name or prefix pattern, the policy and corresponding KMS key are automatically assigned to it.

Encryption policies contain the following elements:

  • Rules – one or more collection matching rules, each with the following sub-elements:

    • ResourceType – Currently the only option is "collection". Encryption policies apply to collection resources only.

    • Resource – One or more collection names or patterns that the policy will apply to, in the format collection/<collection name|pattern>.

  • AWSOwnedKey – Whether to use an AWS owned key.

  • KmsARN – If you set AWSOwnedKey to false, specify the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the KMS key to encrypt the associated collections with. If you include this parameter, OpenSearch Serverless ignores the AWSOwnedKey parameter.

The following sample policy will assign a customer managed key to any future collection named autopartsinventory, as well as collections that begin with the term "sales":

{ "Rules":[ { "ResourceType":"collection", "Resource":[ "collection/autopartsinventory", "collection/sales*" ] } ], "AWSOwnedKey":false, "KmsARN":"arn:aws:encryption:us-east-1:123456789012:key/93fd6da4-a317-4c17-bfe9-382b5d988b36" }

Even if a policy matches a collection name, you can choose to override this automatic assignment during collection creation if the resource pattern contains a wildcard (*). If you choose to override automatic key assignment, OpenSearch Serverless creates an encryption policy for you named auto-<collection-name> and attaches it to the collection. The policy initially only applies to a single collection, but you can modify it to include additional collections.

If you modify policy rules to no longer match a collection, the associated KMS key won't be unassigned from that collection. The collection always remains encrypted with its initial encryption key. If you want to change the encryption key for a collection, you must recreate the collection.

If rules from multiple policies match a collection, the more specific rule is used. For example, if one policy contains a rule for collection/log*, and another for collection/logSpecial, the encryption key for the second policy is used because it's more specific.

You can't use a name or a prefix in a policy if it already exists in another policy. OpenSearch Serverless displays an error if you try to configure identical resource patterns in different encryption policies.

Considerations

Consider the following when you configure encryption for your collections:

  • Encryption at rest is required for all serverless collections.

  • You have the option to use a customer managed key or an AWS owned key. If you choose a customer managed key, we recommend that you enable automatic key rotation.

  • You can't change the encryption key for a collection after the collection is created. Carefully choose which AWS KMS to use the first time you set up a collection.

  • A collection can only match a single encryption policy.

  • Collections with unique KMS keys can't share OpenSearch Compute Units (OCUs) with other collections. Each collection with a unique key requires its own 4 OCUs.

  • If you update the KMS key in an encryption policy, the change doesn't affect existing matching collections with KMS keys already assigned.

  • OpenSearch Serverless doesn't explicitly check user permissions on customer managed keys. If a user has permissions to access a collection through a data access policy, they will be able to ingest and query the data that is encrypted with the associated key.

Permissions required

Encryption at rest for OpenSearch Serverless uses the following AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions. You can specify IAM conditions to restrict users to specific collections.

  • aoss:CreateSecurityPolicy – Create an encryption policy.

  • aoss:ListSecurityPolicies – List all encryption policies and collections that they are attached to.

  • aoss:GetSecurityPolicy – See details of a specific encryption policy.

  • aoss:UpdateSecurityPolicy – Modify an encryption policy.

  • aoss:DeleteSecurityPolicy – Delete an encryption policy.

The following sample identity-based access policy provides the minimum permissions necessary for a user to manage encryption policies with the resource pattern collection/application-logs.

{ "Version":"2012-10-17", "Statement":[ { "Effect":"Allow", "Action":[ "aoss:CreateSecurityPolicy", "aoss:UpdateSecurityPolicy", "aoss:DeleteSecurityPolicy", "aoss:GetSecurityPolicy" ], "Resource":"*", "Condition":{ "StringEquals":{ "aoss:collection":"application-logs" } } }, { "Effect":"Allow", "Action":[ "aoss:ListSecurityPolicies" ], "Resource":"*" } ] }

Key policy for a customer managed key

If you select a customer managed key to protect a collection, OpenSearch Serverless gets permission to use the KMS key on behalf of the principal who makes the selection. That principal, a user or role, must have the permissions on the KMS key that OpenSearch Serverless requires. You can provide these permissions in a key policy or an IAM policy.

At a minimum, OpenSearch Serverless requires the following permissions on a customer managed key:

For example:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "kms:DescribeKey", "kms:CreateGrant" ], "Resource": "*", "Condition": { "StringEquals": { "kms:ViaService": "aoss.us-east-1.amazonaws.com" }, "Bool": { "kms:GrantIsForAWSResource": "true" } } } ] }

OpenSearch Serverless create a grant with the kms:GenerateDataKey and kms:Decrypt permissions.

For more information, see Using key policies in AWS KMS in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

How OpenSearch Serverless uses grants in AWS KMS

OpenSearch Serverless requires a grant in order to use a customer managed key.

When you create an encryption policy in your account with a new key, OpenSearch Serverless creates a grant on your behalf by sending a CreateGrant request to AWS KMS. Grants in AWS KMS are used to give OpenSearch Serverless access to a KMS key in a customer account.

OpenSearch Serverless requires the grant to use your customer managed key for the following internal operations:

  • Send DescribeKey requests to AWS KMS to verify that the symmetric customer managed key ID provided is valid.

  • Send GenerateDataKey requests to KMS key to create data keys with which to encrypt objects.

  • Send Decrypt requests to AWS KMS to decrypt the encrypted data keys so that they can be used to encrypt your data.

You can revoke access to the grant, or remove the service's access to the customer managed key at any time. If you do, OpenSearch Serverless won't be able to access any of the data encrypted by the customer managed key, which affects all the operations that are dependent on that data, leading to AccessDeniedException errors and failures in the asynchronous workflows.

OpenSearch Serverless retires grants in an asynchronous workflow when a given customer managed key isn't associated with any security policies or collections.

Creating encryption policies (console)

In an encryption policy, you specify an KMS key and a series of collection patterns that the policy will apply to. Any new collections that match one of the patterns defined in the policy will be assigned the corresponding KMS key when you create the collection. We recommend that you create encryption policies before you start creating collections.

To create an OpenSearch Serverless encryption policy
  1. Open the Amazon OpenSearch Service console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/aos/home.

  2. On the left navigation panel, expand Serverless and choose Encryption policies.

  3. Choose Create encryption policy.

  4. Provide a name and description for the policy.

  5. Under Resources, enter one or more resource patterns for this encryption policy. Any newly created collections in the current AWS account and Region that match one of the patterns are automatically assigned to this policy. For example, if you enter ApplicationLogs (with no wildcard), and later create a collection with that name, the policy and corresponding KMS key are assigned to that collection.

    You can also provide a prefix such as Logs*, which assigns the policy to any new collections with names beginning with Logs. By using wildcards, you can manage encryption settings for multiple collections at scale.

  6. Under Encryption, choose an KMS key to use.

  7. Choose Create.

Next step: Create collections

After you configure one or more encryption policies, you can start creating collections that match the rules defined in those policies. For instructions, see Creating collections.

In the Encryptions step of collection creation, OpenSearch Serverless informs you that the name that you entered matches the pattern defined in an encryption policy, and automatically assigns the corresponding KMS key to the collection. If the resource pattern contains a wildcard (*), you can choose to override the match and select your own key.

Creating encryption policies (AWS CLI)

To create an encryption policy using the OpenSearch Serverless API operations, you specify resource patterns and an encryption key in JSON format. The CreateSecurityPolicy request accepts both inline policies and .json files.

Encryption policies take the following format. This sample my-policy.json file matches any future collection named autopartsinventory, as well as any collections with names beginning with sales.

{ "Rules":[ { "ResourceType":"collection", "Resource":[ "collection/autopartsinventory", "collection/sales*" ] } ], "AWSOwnedKey":false, "KmsARN":"arn:aws:encryption:us-east-1:123456789012:key/93fd6da4-a317-4c17-bfe9-382b5d988b36" }

To use a service-owned key, set AWSOwnedKey to true:

{ "Rules":[ { "ResourceType":"collection", "Resource":[ "collection/autopartsinventory", "collection/sales*" ] } ], "AWSOwnedKey":true }

The following request creates the encryption policy:

aws opensearchserverless create-security-policy \ --name sales-inventory \ --type encryption \ --policy file://my-policy.json

Then, use the CreateCollection API operation to create one or more collections that match one of the resource patterns.

Viewing encryption policies

Before you create a collection, you might want to preview the existing encryption policies in your account to see which one has a resource pattern that matches your collection's name. The following ListSecurityPolicies request lists all encryption policies in your account:

aws opensearchserverless list-security-policies --type encryption

The request returns information about all configured encryption policies. Use the contents of the policy element to view the pattern rules that are defined in the policy:

{ "securityPolicyDetails": [ { "createdDate": 1663693217826, "description": "Sample encryption policy", "lastModifiedDate": 1663693217826, "name": "my-policy", "policy": "{\"Rules\":[{\"ResourceType\":\"collection\",\"Resource\":[\"collection/autopartsinventory\",\"collection/sales*\"]}],\"AWSOwnedKey\":true}", "policyVersion": "MTY2MzY5MzIxNzgyNl8x", "type": "encryption" } ] }

To view detailed information about a specific policy, including the KMS key, use the GetSecurityPolicy command.

Updating encryption policies

If you update the KMS key in an encryption policy, the change only applies to the newly created collections that match the configured name or pattern. It doesn't affect existing collections that have KMS keys already assigned.

The same applies to policy matching rules. If you add, modify, or delete a rule, the change only applies to newly created collections. Existing collections don't lose their assigned KMS key if you modify a policy's rules so that it no longer matches a collection's name.

To update an encryption policy in the OpenSearch Serverless console, choose Encryption policies, select the policy to modify, and choose Edit. Make your changes and choose Save.

To update an encryption policy using the OpenSearch Serverless API, use the UpdateSecurityPolicy operation. The following request updates an encryption policy with a new policy JSON document:

aws opensearchserverless update-security-policy \ --name sales-inventory \ --type encryption \ --policy-version 2 \ --policy file://my-new-policy.json

Deleting encryption policies

When you delete an encryption policy, any collections that are currently using the KMS key defined in the policy are not affected. To delete a policy in the OpenSearch Serverless console, select the policy and choose Delete.

You can also use the DeleteSecurityPolicy operation:

aws opensearchserverless delete-security-policy --name my-policy --type encryption

Encryption in transit

Within OpenSearch Serverless, all paths in a collection are encrypted in transit using Transport Layer Security 1.2 (TLS) with an industry-standard AES-256 cipher. Access to all APIs and Dashboards for Opensearch is also through TLS 1.2 . TLS is a set of industry-standard cryptographic protocols used for encrypting information that is exchanged over the network.