Regions and Amazon SES - Amazon Simple Email Service

Regions and Amazon SES

Amazon SES is available in several AWS Regions around the world. In each Region, AWS maintains multiple Availability Zones. These Availability Zones are physically isolated from each other, but are united by private, low-latency, high-throughput, and highly redundant network connections. These Availability Zones enable us to provide very high levels of availability and redundancy, while also minimizing latency.

For a list of all of the Amazon SES Regional endpoints, see Amazon Simple Email Service endpoints and quotas in the Amazon Web Services General Reference. To learn more about the number of Availability Zones that are available in each Region, see AWS Global Infrastructure.

This section contains information that you need to know if you plan to use Amazon SES in multiple AWS Regions. It discusses the following subjects:

For general information about AWS Regions, see AWS Regions and Endpoints in the AWS General Reference.

Amazon SES regions and endpoints

When you use Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES) to send email, you connect to a URL that provides an endpoint for the Amazon SES API or SMTP interface. The AWS General Reference contains a complete list of endpoints that you use to send and receive email through Amazon SES. For more information, see Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES) in the AWS General Reference.

When you send email through Amazon SES, you can use the URLs in the API (HTTPS) Endpoint column to make HTTPS requests to the Amazon SES API. You can also use the URLs in the SMTP Endpoint column to send email by using the SMTP interface.

If you've configured Amazon SES to receive email that's sent to your domain, you can use the inbound SMTP endpoint URLs (that is, the URLs that begin with "inbound-smtp.") when you set up the mail exchanger (MX) records in the DNS settings for your domain.

Note

The inbound SMTP URLs aren't IMAP server addresses. In other words, you can't use them to receive email by using an application such as Outlook. For a service that provides an IMAP server for incoming email, see Amazon WorkMail.

Sandbox and sending limit increases

The sandbox status for your account can differ between AWS Regions. In other words, if your account has been removed from the sandbox in the US West (Oregon) Region, it might still be in the sandbox in the US East (N. Virginia) Region, unless you've also had it removed from the sandbox in that Region.

Sending limits can also be different depending on the AWS Region. For example, if your account is able to send 10 messages per second in the Europe (Ireland) Region, you might be able to send more or fewer messages in other Regions.

When you submit a request to have your account removed from the sandbox, or when you submit a request to have your account's sending quotas increased, be sure to choose all of the AWS Regions that your request applies to. You can submit several requests in a single Support Center case.

Verification of email addresses and domains

Before you can send email using Amazon SES, you have to verify that you own the email address or domain that you plan to send from. The verification status of email addresses and domains also differs across AWS Regions. For example, if you verify a domain in the US West (Oregon) Region, you can't use that domain to send email in the US East (N. Virginia) Region until you complete the verification process again for that Region. For more information about verifying email addresses and domains, see Verifying identities in Amazon SES.

Easy DKIM

You have to perform the Easy DKIM setup process for each Region where you want to use Easy DKIM. That is, in each Region, you have to use the Amazon SES console or the Amazon SES API to generate TXT records. Next, you have to add all of the TXT records to the DNS configuration for your domain. For more information about setting up Easy DKIM, see Easy DKIM in Amazon SES.

Suppression list

Although each Region has a separate global suppression list, if you remove an address from the global suppression list in one Region, Amazon SES removes the address from the global suppression list in all Regions. You remove addresses from the suppression list by using the Amazon SES console. For more information about removing addresses from the suppression list, see Using the Amazon SES global suppression list.

Feedback notifications

There are two important points to note about setting up feedback notifications in multiple Regions:

  • Verified identity settings, such as whether you receive feedback by email or through Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS), only apply to the Region that you set them in. For example, if you verify user@example.com in the US West (Oregon) and US East (N. Virginia) Regions and you want to receive bounced emails via Amazon SNS notifications, you have to use the Amazon SES API or the Amazon SES console to set up Amazon SNS feedback notifications for user@example.com in both Regions.

  • Amazon SNS topics that you use for feedback forwarding have to be in the same Region where you use Amazon SES.

SMTP credentials

The credentials that you use to send email through the Amazon SES SMTP interface are unique to each AWS Region. If you use the Amazon SES SMTP interface to send email in more than one Region, you have to generate a set of SMTP credentials for each Region.

Note

If you created your SMTP credentials before January 10, 2019, your SMTP credentials were created using an older version of the AWS Signature. For security purposes, you should delete credentials that you created before this date, and replace them with newer credentials. You can delete older credentials by using the IAM console.

Custom MAIL FROM domains

You can use the same custom MAIL FROM domain for verified identities in different AWS Regions. If that is what you want to do, you only need to publish one MX record to the MAIL FROM domain's DNS server. In this situation, bounce notifications are sent to the Amazon SES feedback endpoint in the Region that you specified in the MX record first. Next Amazon SES redirects the bounces to the verified identity in the Region that sent the email.

Use the MX record settings that Amazon SES provides during the custom MAIL FROM setup process for an identity in one of the Regions. The custom MAIL FROM setup process is described in Setting up a custom MAIL FROM domain. For reference, you can find the feedback endpoints for all of the Regions in the following table.

Region Name Feedback Endpoints for Custom MAIL FROM Sending Configurations

US East (Ohio)

feedback-smtp.us-east-2.amazonses.com

US East (N. Virginia)

feedback-smtp.us-east-1.amazonses.com

US West (N. California)

feedback-smtp.us-west-1.amazonses.com

US West (Oregon)

feedback-smtp.us-west-2.amazonses.com

Asia Pacific (Mumbai)

feedback-smtp.ap-south-1.amazonses.com

Asia Pacific (Seoul)

feedback-smtp.ap-northeast-2.amazonses.com

Asia Pacific (Singapore)

feedback-smtp.ap-southeast-1.amazonses.com

Asia Pacific (Sydney)

feedback-smtp.ap-southeast-2.amazonses.com

Asia Pacific (Tokyo)

feedback-smtp.ap-northeast-1.amazonses.com

Canada (Central)

feedback-smtp.ca-central-1.amazonses.com

Europe (Frankfurt)

feedback-smtp.eu-central-1.amazonses.com

Europe (Ireland)

feedback-smtp.eu-west-1.amazonses.com

Europe (London)

feedback-smtp.eu-west-2.amazonses.com

Europe (Paris)

feedback-smtp.eu-west-3.amazonses.com

Europe (Stockholm)

feedback-smtp.eu-north-1.amazonses.com

South America (São Paulo)

feedback-smtp.sa-east-1.amazonses.com

AWS GovCloud (US)

feedback-smtp.us-gov-west-1.amazonses.com

Sending authorization

Delegate senders can only send emails from the AWS Region where the identity owner's identity is verified. The sending authorization policy that gives permission to the delegate sender must be attached to the identity in that Region. For more information about sending authorization, see Using sending authorization with Amazon SES.

Email receiving

With the exception of Amazon S3 buckets, all of the AWS resources that you use for receiving email with Amazon SES have to be in the same AWS Region as the Amazon SES endpoint. For example, if you use Amazon SES in the US West (Oregon) Region, then any Amazon SNS topics, AWS KMS keys, and Lambda functions that you use also have to be in the US West (Oregon) Region. Similarly, to receive email with Amazon SES within a Region, you have to create an active receipt rule set in that Region.

The following table lists the email receiving endpoints for all of the AWS Regions where Amazon SES supports email receiving:

Region Name Email Receiving Endpoint

US East (N. Virginia)

inbound-smtp.us-east-1.amazonaws.com

US West (Oregon)

inbound-smtp.us-west-2.amazonaws.com

Europe (Ireland)

inbound-smtp.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com

Note

Amazon SES doesn't support email receiving in the following Regions: US East (Ohio), US West (N. California), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Canada (Central), Europe (Frankfurt), Europe (London), Europe (Paris), Europe (Stockholm), South America (São Paulo), and AWS GovCloud (US).

For information and discussions about a variety of topics related to Amazon SES, see the AWS Messaging and Targeting Blog. To browse and post questions, go to the Amazon SES Forum.