Amazon QLDB identity-based policy examples - Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (Amazon QLDB)

Amazon QLDB identity-based policy examples

By default, IAM users and roles don't have permission to create or modify QLDB resources. They also can't perform tasks using the AWS Management Console, AWS CLI, or AWS API. An IAM administrator must create IAM policies that grant users and roles permission to perform specific API operations on the specified resources they need. The administrator must then attach those policies to the IAM users or groups that require those permissions.

To learn how to create an IAM identity-based policy using these example JSON policy documents, see Creating policies on the JSON tab in the IAM User Guide.

Policy best practices

Identity-based policies are very powerful. They determine whether someone can create, access, or delete QLDB resources in your account. These actions can incur costs for your AWS account. When you create or edit identity-based policies, follow these guidelines and recommendations:

  • Get Started Using AWS Managed Policies – To start using QLDB quickly, use AWS managed policies to give your employees the permissions they need. These policies are already available in your account and are maintained and updated by AWS. For more information, see Get Started Using Permissions With AWS Managed Policies in the IAM User Guide.

  • Grant Least Privilege – When you create custom policies, grant only the permissions required to perform a task. Start with a minimum set of permissions and grant additional permissions as necessary. Doing so is more secure than starting with permissions that are too lenient and then trying to tighten them later. For more information, see Grant Least Privilege in the IAM User Guide.

  • Enable MFA for Sensitive Operations – For extra security, require IAM users to use multi-factor authentication (MFA) to access sensitive resources or API operations. For more information, see Using Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) in AWS in the IAM User Guide.

  • Use Policy Conditions for Extra Security – To the extent that it's practical, define the conditions under which your identity-based policies allow access to a resource. For example, you can write conditions to specify a range of allowable IP addresses that a request must come from. You can also write conditions to allow requests only within a specified date or time range, or to require the use of SSL or MFA. For more information, see IAM JSON Policy Elements: Condition in the IAM User Guide.

Using the QLDB console

To access the Amazon QLDB console and use all of its features, you must have full access with read and write permissions to the QLDB resources in your AWS account. In addition to these QLDB permissions, the console requires permissions from the Database Query Metadata Service (dbqms). This service provides your recent and saved queries for the Query editor on the QLDB console. For more information, see DBQMS API reference.

If you create an identity-based policy that is more restrictive than the minimum required permissions, the console won't function as intended for entities (IAM users or roles) with that policy. To ensure that those entities can still use the QLDB console, also attach the following AWS managed policy to the entities, as described in AWS managed (predefined) policies for Amazon QLDB.

AmazonQLDBConsoleFullAccess

You don't need to allow minimum console permissions for users that are making calls only to the AWS CLI or the AWS API. Instead, allow access to only the actions that match the API operation that you're trying to perform. You can also use one of the AWS managed policies described in the following section.

AWS managed (predefined) policies for Amazon QLDB

AWS addresses many common use cases by providing standalone IAM policies that are created and administered by AWS. These AWS managed policies grant necessary permissions for common use cases so that you can avoid having to investigate what permissions are needed. For more information, see AWS managed policies and Adding permissions to a user in the IAM User Guide.

The following AWS managed policies, which you can attach to users in your account, are specific to QLDB and are grouped by use case scenario:

  • AmazonQLDBReadOnly — Grants read-only access to all QLDB resources.

  • AmazonQLDBFullAccess — Grants full access to all QLDB resources by using the QLDB API or the AWS CLI.

  • AmazonQLDBConsoleFullAccess — Grants full access to all QLDB resources by using the AWS Management Console.

Note

You can review these permissions policies by signing in to the IAM console and searching for specific policies there.

You can also create your own custom IAM policies to allow permissions for QLDB actions and resources. You can attach these custom policies to the IAM users or groups that require those permissions.

Executing data transactions

To interact with the QLDB transactional data API by executing PartiQL statements on a ledger, you must grant permission to the SendCommand action. The following JSON document is an example of a policy that grants permission to only the SendCommand action on the ledger exampleLedger. You can also use one of the AWS managed policies, as described in the previous section, to grant full access to all QLDB resources.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "QLDBDataTransactionPermission", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "qldb:SendCommand", "Resource": "arn:aws:qldb:us-east-1:123456789012:ledger/exampleLedger" } ] }

Allow users to view their own permissions

This example shows how you might create a policy that allows IAM users to view the inline and managed policies that are attached to their user identity. This policy includes permissions to complete this action on the console or programmatically using the AWS CLI or AWS API.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "ViewOwnUserInfo", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "iam:GetUserPolicy", "iam:ListGroupsForUser", "iam:ListAttachedUserPolicies", "iam:ListUserPolicies", "iam:GetUser" ], "Resource": ["arn:aws:iam::*:user/${aws:username}"] }, { "Sid": "NavigateInConsole", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "iam:GetGroupPolicy", "iam:GetPolicyVersion", "iam:GetPolicy", "iam:ListAttachedGroupPolicies", "iam:ListGroupPolicies", "iam:ListPolicyVersions", "iam:ListPolicies", "iam:ListUsers" ], "Resource": "*" } ] }

Exporting a journal to an Amazon S3 bucket

In this example, you want to grant an IAM user in your AWS account access to write into one of your Amazon S3 buckets, DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET. This is required for a QLDB journal export job.

In addition to granting the s3:PutObject permission to the user, the policy also grants s3:PutObjectAcl for the ability to set the access control list (ACL) permissions for an object. For an example walkthrough that grants permissions to users and tests them using the console, see An example walkthrough: Using user policies to control access to your bucket.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "QLDBJournalExportS3Permission", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "s3: PutObject", "s3: PutObjectAcl" ], "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/*" } ] }

Then, you attach this permissions policy to an IAM role that QLDB can assume to access your Amazon S3 bucket. The following JSON document is an example of a trust policy that allows QLDB to assume an IAM role with specific permissions attached to it.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "Service": "qldb.amazonaws.com" }, "Action": [ "sts:AssumeRole" ] } ] }

Updating QLDB ledgers based on tags

You can use conditions in your identity-based policy to control access to QLDB resources based on tags. This example shows how you might create a policy that allows updating a ledger. However, permission is granted only if the ledger tag Owner has the value of that user's user name. This policy also grants the permissions necessary to complete this action on the console.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "ListLedgersInConsole", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "qldb:ListLedgers", "Resource": "*" }, { "Sid": "UpdateLedgerIfOwner", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "qldb:UpdateLedger", "Resource": "arn:aws:qldb:*:*:ledger/*", "Condition": { "StringEquals": {"aws:ResourceTag/Owner": "${aws:username}"} } } ] }

You can attach this policy to the IAM users in your account. If a user named richard-roe tries to view a QLDB ledger, the ledger must be tagged Owner=richard-roe or owner=richard-roe. Otherwise he is denied access. The condition tag key Owner matches both Owner and owner because condition key names are not case sensitive. For more information, see IAM JSON policy elements: Condition in the IAM User Guide.