How Amazon VPC works - Amazon Virtual Private Cloud

How Amazon VPC works

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) enables you to launch AWS resources into a virtual network that you've defined. This virtual network closely resembles a traditional network that you'd operate in your own data center, with the benefits of using the scalable infrastructure of AWS.

Amazon VPC is the networking layer for Amazon EC2. If you're new to Amazon EC2, see What is Amazon EC2? in the Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances to get a brief overview.

VPCs and subnets

A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a virtual network dedicated to your AWS account. It is logically isolated from other virtual networks in the AWS Cloud. You can launch your AWS resources, such as Amazon EC2 instances, into your VPC. You can specify an IP address range for the VPC, add subnets, associate security groups, and configure route tables.

A subnet is a range of IP addresses in your VPC. You can launch AWS resources into a specified subnet. Use a public subnet for resources that must be connected to the internet, and a private subnet for resources that won't be connected to the internet .

To protect the AWS resources in each subnet, you can use multiple layers of security, including security groups and network access control lists (ACL).

You can optionally associate an IPv6 CIDR block with your VPC, and assign IPv6 addresses to the instances in your VPC.

Default and nondefault VPCs

If your account was created after 2013-12-04, it comes with a default VPC that has a default subnet in each Availability Zone. A default VPC has the benefits of the advanced features provided by EC2-VPC, and is ready for you to use. If you have a default VPC and don't specify a subnet when you launch an instance, the instance is launched into your default VPC. You can launch instances into your default VPC without needing to know anything about Amazon VPC.

You can also create your own VPC, and configure it as you need. This is known as a nondefault VPC. Subnets that you create in your nondefault VPC and additional subnets that you create in your default VPC are called nondefault subnets.

Route tables

A route table contains a set of rules, called routes, that are used to determine where network traffic from your VPC is directed. You can explicitly associate a subnet with a particular route table. Otherwise, the subnet is implicitly associated with the main route table.

Each route in a route table specifies the range of IP addresses where you want the traffic to go (the destination) and the gateway, network interface, or connection through which to send the traffic (the target).

Access the internet

You control how the instances that you launch into a VPC access resources outside the VPC.

Your default VPC includes an internet gateway, and each default subnet is a public subnet. Each instance that you launch into a default subnet has a private IPv4 address and a public IPv4 address. These instances can communicate with the internet through the internet gateway. An internet gateway enables your instances to connect to the internet through the Amazon EC2 network edge.

						Using a default VPC

By default, each instance that you launch into a nondefault subnet has a private IPv4 address, but no public IPv4 address, unless you specifically assign one at launch, or you modify the subnet's public IP address attribute. These instances can communicate with each other, but can't access the internet.

						Using a nondefault VPC

You can enable internet access for an instance launched into a nondefault subnet by attaching an internet gateway to its VPC (if its VPC is not a default VPC) and associating an Elastic IP address with the instance.

					Using an internet gateway

Alternatively, to allow an instance in your VPC to initiate outbound connections to the internet but prevent unsolicited inbound connections from the internet, you can use a network address translation (NAT) device. NAT maps multiple private IPv4 addresses to a single public IPv4 address. You can configure the NAT device with an Elastic IP address and connect it to the internet through an internet gateway. This makes it possible for an instance in a private subnet to connect to the internet through the NAT device, routing traffic from the instance to the internet gateway and any responses to the instance.

					A VPC with public and private subnets and a NAT gateway

If you associate an IPv6 CIDR block with your VPC and assign IPv6 addresses to your instances, instances can connect to the internet over IPv6 through an internet gateway. Alternatively, instances can initiate outbound connections to the internet over IPv6 using an egress-only internet gateway. IPv6 traffic is separate from IPv4 traffic; your route tables must include separate routes for IPv6 traffic.

Access a corporate or home network

You can optionally connect your VPC to your own corporate data center using an IPsec AWS Site-to-Site VPN connection, making the AWSCloud an extension of your data center.

A Site-to-Site VPN connection consists of two VPN tunnels between a virtual private gateway or transit gateway on the AWSside, and a customer gateway device located in your data center. A customer gateway device is a physical device or software appliance that you configure on your side of the Site-to-Site VPN connection.

						Using a virtual private gateway

Connect VPCs and networks

You can create a VPC peering connection between two VPCs that enables you to route traffic between them privately. Instances in either VPC can communicate with each other as if they are within the same network.

You can also create a transit gateway and use it to interconnect your VPCs and on-premises networks. The transit gateway acts as a Regional virtual router for traffic flowing between its attachments, which can include VPCs, VPN connections, AWS Direct Connect gateways, and transit gateway peering connections.

AWS private global network considerations

AWS provides a high-performance, and low-latency private global network that delivers a secure cloud computing environment to support your networking needs. AWS Regions are connected to multiple Internet Service Providers (ISPs) as well as to a private global network backbone, which provides improved network performance for cross-Region traffic sent by customers.

The following considerations apply:

  • Traffic that is in an Availability Zone, or between Availability Zones in all Regions, routes over the AWS private global network.

  • Traffic that is between Regions always routes over the AWS private global network, except for China Regions.

Network packet loss can be caused by a number of factors, including network flow collisions, lower level (Layer 2) errors, and other network failures. We engineer and operate our networks to minimize packet loss. We measure packet-loss rate (PLR) across the global backbone that connects the AWS Regions. We operate our backbone network to target a p99 of the hourly PLR of less than 0.0001%.

Supported platforms

The original release of Amazon EC2 supported a single, flat network that's shared with other customers called the EC2-Classic platform. Earlier AWS accounts still support this platform, and can launch instances into either EC2-Classic or a VPC. Accounts created after 2013-12-04 support EC2-VPC only. For more information, see EC2-Classic in the Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances.

Amazon VPC documentation

The following table lists additional documentation that you might find helpful as you work with Amazon VPC.

Guide Description

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Connectivity Options

Provides an overview of the options for network connectivity.

VPC Peering

Describes VPC peering connection scenarios and supported peering configurations.

Transit Gateways

Describes transit gateways and helps network administrators configure them.

Transit Gateway Network Manager

Describes Transit Gateway Network Manager and helps you configure and monitor a global network.

Traffic Mirroring

Describes traffic mirroring targets, filters, and sessions, and helps administrators configure them.

AWS Direct Connect

Describes how to use AWS Direct Connect to create a dedicated private connection from a remote network to your VPC.

AWS Client VPN

Describes how to create and configure a Client VPN endpoint to enable remote users to access resources in a VPC.

VPC Reachability Analyzer

Describes how to analyze and debug network reachability between resources in your VPCs.