Identity-based policy examples for Amazon Comprehend - Amazon Comprehend

Identity-based policy examples for Amazon Comprehend

By default, users and roles don't have permission to create or modify Amazon Comprehend resources. They also can't perform tasks by using the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or AWS API. To grant users permission to perform actions on the resources that they need, an IAM administrator can create IAM policies. The administrator can then add the IAM policies to roles, and users can assume the roles.

To learn how to create an IAM identity-based policy by using these example JSON policy documents, see Creating IAM policies in the IAM User Guide.

For details about actions and resource types defined by Amazon Comprehend, including the format of the ARNs for each of the resource types, see Actions, resources, and condition keys for Amazon Comprehend in the Service Authorization Reference.

Policy best practices

Identity-based policies determine whether someone can create, access, or delete Amazon Comprehend resources in your account. These actions can incur costs for your AWS account. When you create or edit identity-based policies, follow these guidelines and recommendations:

  • Get started with AWS managed policies and move toward least-privilege permissions – To get started granting permissions to your users and workloads, use the AWS managed policies that grant permissions for many common use cases. They are available in your AWS account. We recommend that you reduce permissions further by defining AWS customer managed policies that are specific to your use cases. For more information, see AWS managed policies or AWS managed policies for job functions in the IAM User Guide.

  • Apply least-privilege permissions – When you set permissions with IAM policies, grant only the permissions required to perform a task. You do this by defining the actions that can be taken on specific resources under specific conditions, also known as least-privilege permissions. For more information about using IAM to apply permissions, see Policies and permissions in IAM in the IAM User Guide.

  • Use conditions in IAM policies to further restrict access – You can add a condition to your policies to limit access to actions and resources. For example, you can write a policy condition to specify that all requests must be sent using SSL. You can also use conditions to grant access to service actions if they are used through a specific AWS service, such as AWS CloudFormation. For more information, see IAM JSON policy elements: Condition in the IAM User Guide.

  • Use IAM Access Analyzer to validate your IAM policies to ensure secure and functional permissions – IAM Access Analyzer validates new and existing policies so that the policies adhere to the IAM policy language (JSON) and IAM best practices. IAM Access Analyzer provides more than 100 policy checks and actionable recommendations to help you author secure and functional policies. For more information, see IAM Access Analyzer policy validation in the IAM User Guide.

  • Require multi-factor authentication (MFA) – If you have a scenario that requires IAM users or a root user in your AWS account, turn on MFA for additional security. To require MFA when API operations are called, add MFA conditions to your policies. For more information, see Configuring MFA-protected API access in the IAM User Guide.

For more information about best practices in IAM, see Security best practices in IAM in the IAM User Guide.

Using the Amazon Comprehend console

To access the Amazon Comprehend console, you must have a minimum set of permissions. These permissions must allow you to list and view details about the Amazon Comprehend resources in your AWS account. If you create an identity-based policy that is more restrictive than the minimum required permissions, the console won't function as intended for entities (users or roles) with that policy.

You don't need to allow minimum console permissions for users that are making calls only to the AWS CLI or the AWS API. Instead, allow access to only the actions that match the API operation that they're trying to perform.

For minimum Amazon Comprehend console permissions, you can attach the ComprehendReadOnly AWS managed policy to the entities. For more information, see Adding permissions to a user in the IAM User Guide.

To use the Amazon Comprehend console, you also need permissions for the actions shown in the following policy:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Action": [ "iam:ListRoles", "iam:GetRole", "s3:ListAllMyBuckets", "s3:ListBucket", "s3:GetBucketLocation" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "*" } ] }

The Amazon Comprehend console needs these additional permissions for the following reasons:

  • iam permissions to list the available IAM roles for your account.

  • s3 permissions to access the Amazon S3 buckets and objects that contain the data for topic modeling.

When you create an asynchronous batch job or a topic modeling job using the console, you have the option to have the console create an IAM role for your job. To create an IAM role, users must be granted the following additional permissions to create IAM roles and policies, and to attach policies to roles:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Action": [ "iam:CreateRole", "iam:CreatePolicy", "iam:AttachRolePolicy" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "*" }, { "Action": [ "iam:PassRole" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "arn:aws:iam::*:role/*Comprehend*" } ] }

The Amazon Comprehend console needs these additional permissions for the following reasons:

  • iam permissions to create roles and policies and to attach roles and policies. The iam:PassRole action enables the console to pass the role to Amazon Comprehend.

Allow users to view their own permissions

This example shows how you might create a policy that allows IAM users to view the inline and managed policies that are attached to their user identity. This policy includes permissions to complete this action on the console or programmatically using the AWS CLI or AWS API.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "ViewOwnUserInfo", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "iam:GetUserPolicy", "iam:ListGroupsForUser", "iam:ListAttachedUserPolicies", "iam:ListUserPolicies", "iam:GetUser" ], "Resource": ["arn:aws:iam::*:user/${aws:username}"] }, { "Sid": "NavigateInConsole", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "iam:GetGroupPolicy", "iam:GetPolicyVersion", "iam:GetPolicy", "iam:ListAttachedGroupPolicies", "iam:ListGroupPolicies", "iam:ListPolicyVersions", "iam:ListPolicies", "iam:ListUsers" ], "Resource": "*" } ] }

Permissions required to perform document analysis actions

The following example policy grants permissions to use the Amazon Comprehend document analysis actions:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [{ "Sid": "AllowDetectActions", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "comprehend:DetectEntities", "comprehend:DetectKeyPhrases", "comprehend:DetectDominantLanguage", "comprehend:DetectSentiment", "comprehend:DetectTargetedSentiment", "comprehend:DetectSyntax", "textract:DetectDocumentText", "textract:AnalyzeDocument" ], "Resource": "*" } ] }

The policy has one statement that grants permission to use the DetectEntities, DetectKeyPhrases, DetectDominantLanguage, DetectTargetedSentiment, DetectSentiment, and DetectSyntax actions. The policy statement also grants permissions to use two Amazon Textract API methods. Amazon Comprehend calls these methods to extract text from image files and scanned PDF documents. You can remove these permissions for users that never run custom inference for these types of input files.

A user with this policy would not be able to perform batch actions or asynchronous actions in your account.

The policy doesn't specify the Principal element because you don't specify the principal who gets the permission in an identity-based policy. When you attach a policy to a user, the user is the implicit principal. When you attach a permissions policy to an IAM role, the principal identified in the role's trust policy gets the permissions.

For a table showing all the Amazon Comprehend API actions and the resources that they apply to, see Actions, resources, and condition keys for Amazon Comprehend in the Service Authorization Reference.

Permissions required to use KMS encryption

To fully use Amazon Key Management Service (KMS) for data and job encryption in an asynchronous job, you need to grant permissions for the actions shown in the following policy:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Action": [ "kms:CreateGrant" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "*" }, { "Action": [ "kms:Decrypt", "kms:GenerateDatakey" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "*", "Condition": { "StringEquals": { "kms:ViaService": [ "" ] } } } ] }

When you create an asychronous job with Amazon Comprehend you use input data stored on Amazon S3. With S3, you have the option to encrypt your stored data, which is encrypted by S3, not by Amazon Comprehend. We can decrypt and read that encrypted input data if you provide kms:Decrypt permission for the key with which the original input data was encrypted to the data access role used by the Amazon Comprehend job.

You also have the option of using KMS customer-managed keys (CMK) to encrypt the output results on S3, as well as the storage volume used during job processing. When you do this, you can use the same KMS key for both types of encryption, but this is not necessary. Separate fields are available when creating the job to specify the keys for output encryption and volume encryption and you can even use a KMS key from a different account.

When using KMS encryption, kms:CreateGrant permission is required for volume encryption and kms:GenerateDataKey permission is needed for output data encryption. For reading encrypted input (as when the input data is already encrypted by Amazon S3), kms:Decrypt permission is required. The IAM role needs to give these permissions as needed. However, if the key is from a different account than is currently being used, the KMS key policy for that kms key must also give these permissions to the data access role for the job.

AWS managed (predefined) policies for Amazon Comprehend

AWS addresses many common use cases by providing standalone IAM policies that are created and administered by AWS. These AWS managed policies grant necessary permissions for common use cases so that you can avoid having to investigate what permissions are needed. For more information, see AWS managed policies in the IAM User Guide.

The following AWS managed policies, which you can attach to users in your account, are specific to Amazon Comprehend:

  • ComprehendFullAccess – Grants full access to Amazon Comprehend resources including running topic modeling jobs. Includes permission to list and get IAM roles.

  • ComprehendReadOnly – Grants permission to run all Amazon Comprehend actions except StartDominantLanguageDetectionJob, StartEntitiesDetectionJob, StartKeyPhrasesDetectionJob, StartSentimentDetectionJob, StartTargetedSentimentDetectionJob, and StartTopicsDetectionJob.

You need to apply the following additional policy to any user that will use Amazon Comprehend:

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Action": [ "iam:PassRole" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "arn:aws:iam::*:role/*Comprehend*" } ] }

You can review the managed permissions policies by signing in to the IAM console and searching for specific policies there.

These policies work when you are using AWS SDKs or the AWS CLI.

You can also create your own custom IAM policies to allow permissions for Amazon Comprehend actions and resources. You can attach these custom policies to the users, groups or roles that require those permissions.

Role-based permissions required for asynchronous operations

To use the Amazon Comprehend asynchronous operations, you must grant Amazon Comprehend access to the Amazon S3 bucket that contains your document collection. You do this by creating a data access role in your account with a trust policy to trust the Amazon Comprehend service principal. For more information about creating a role, see Creating a role to delegate permissions to an AWS service in the AWS Identity and Access Management User Guide.

The following shows an example trust policy for the role that you create. To help with confused deputy prevention, you restrict the scope of the permission by using one or more global condition context keys. Set the aws:SourceAccount value to your account ID. If you use the ArnEquals condition, set the aws:SourceArn value to the ARN of the job. Use a wildcard for the job number in the ARN, because Amazon Comprehend generates this number as part of job creation.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "Service": "" }, "Action": "sts:AssumeRole", "Condition": { "StringEquals": { "aws:SourceAccount": "111122223333" }, "ArnEquals": { "aws:SourceArn": "arn:aws:comprehend:us-west-2:111122223333:pii-entities-detection-job/*" } } } ] }

After you create the role, create an access policy for that role. This should grant the Amazon S3 GetObject and ListBucket permissions to the Amazon S3 bucket that contains your input data, and the Amazon S3 PutObject permission to your Amazon S3 output data bucket.

Permissions to allow all Amazon Comprehend actions

After you sign up for AWS, you create an administrator user to manage your account, including creating users and managing their permissions.

You might choose to create a user who has permissions for all Amazon Comprehend actions (think of this user as a service-specific administrator) for working with Amazon Comprehend. You can attach the following permissions policy to this user.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "AllowAllComprehendActions", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "comprehend:*", "iam:ListRoles", "iam:GetRole", "s3:ListAllMyBuckets", "s3:ListBucket", "s3:GetBucketLocation", "iam:CreateRole", "iam:CreatePolicy", "iam:AttachRolePolicy", "kms:CreateGrant", "kms:Decrypt", "kms:GenerateDatakey" ], "Resource": "*" }, { "Action": [ "iam:PassRole" ], "Effect": "Allow", "Resource": "arn:aws:iam::*:role/*Comprehend*" } ] }

These permissions can be modified with regard to encryption in the following ways:

  • To enable Amazon Comprehend to analyze documents stored in an encrypted S3 bucket, the IAM role must have the kms:Decrypt permission.

  • To enable Amazon Comprehend to encrypt documents stored on a storage volume attached to the compute instance that processes the analysis job, the IAM role must have the kms:CreateGrant permission.

  • To enable Amazon Comprehend to encrypt the output results in their S3 bucket, the IAM role must have the kms:GenerateDataKey permission.

Permissions to allow topic modeling actions

The following permissions policy grants user permissions to perform the Amazon Comprehend topic modeling operations.

{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [{ "Sid": "AllowTopicModelingActions", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "comprehend:DescribeTopicsDetectionJob", "comprehend:ListTopicsDetectionJobs", "comprehend:StartTopicsDetectionJob", ], "Resource": "*" ] } ] }

Permissions required for a custom asynchronous analysis job


If you have an IAM policy which restricts model access, you won't be able to complete an inference job with a custom model. Your IAM policy should be updated to having a wildcard resource for a custom async analysis job.

If you are using the StartDocumentClassificationJob and StartEntitiesDetectionJob APIs, you need to update your IAM policy unless you are currently using wildcards as resources. If you are using a StartEntitiesDetectionJob using a pretrained model this does not impact you and you don't need to make any changes.

The following example policy contains an outdated reference.

{ "Action": [ "comprehend:StartDocumentClassificationJob", "comprehend:StartEntitiesDetectionJob", ], "Resource": [ "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:document-classifier/myClassifier", "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:entity-recognizer/myRecognizer" ], "Effect": "Allow" }

This is the updated policy you need to use to sucessfully run StartDocumentClassificationJob and StartEntitiesDetectionJob.

{ "Action": [ "comprehend:StartDocumentClassificationJob", "comprehend:StartEntitiesDetectionJob", ], "Resource": [ "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:document-classifier/myClassifier", "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:document-classification-job/*", "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:entity-recognizer/myRecognizer", "arn:aws:comprehend:us-east-1:123456789012:entities-detection-job/*" ], "Effect": "Allow" }