Operational Best Practices for GxP EU Annex 11 - AWS Config

Operational Best Practices for GxP EU Annex 11

Conformance packs provide a general-purpose compliance framework designed to enable you to create security, operational or cost-optimization governance checks using managed or custom AWS Config rules and AWS Config remediation actions. Conformance Packs, as sample templates, are not designed to fully ensure compliance with a specific governance or compliance standard. You are responsible for making your own assessment of whether your use of the Services meets applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

The following provides a sample mapping between the GxP EU Annex 11 and AWS managed Config rules. Each Config rule applies to a specific AWS resource, and relates to one or more GxP EU Annex 11 controls. A GxP EU Annex 11 control can be related to multiple Config rules. Refer to the table below for more detail and guidance related to these mappings.

AWS Region: All supported AWS Regions except Middle East (Bahrain), South America (São Paulo), and Asia Pacific (Hong Kong)

Control ID Control Description AWS Config Rule Guidance
1. Risk Management Risk management should be applied throughout the lifecycle of the computerised system taking into account patient safety, data integrity and product quality. As part of a risk management system, decisions on the extent of validation and data integrity controls should be based on a justified and documented risk assessment of the computerised system.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
1. Risk Management Risk management should be applied throughout the lifecycle of the computerised system taking into account patient safety, data integrity and product quality. As part of a risk management system, decisions on the extent of validation and data integrity controls should be based on a justified and documented risk assessment of the computerised system.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
4.2. Validation - Documentation Change Control Validation documentation should include change control records (if applicable) and reports on any deviations observed during the validation process.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

ec2-instance-managed-by-systems-manager

An inventory of the software platforms and applications within the organization is possible by managing Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances with AWS Systems Manager. Use AWS Systems Manager to provide detailed system configurations, operating system patch levels, services name and type, software installations, application name, publisher and version, and other details about your environment.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

ec2-managedinstance-association-compliance-status-check

Use AWS Systems Manager Associations to help with inventory of software platforms and applications within an organization. AWS Systems Manager assigns a configuration state to your managed instances and allows you to set baselines of operating system patch levels, software installations, application configurations, and other details about your environment.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

ec2-security-group-attached-to-eni-periodic

To help manage your asset inventory, this rule checks if security groups are attached to Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances or to an elastic network interface. If your security groups are not attached to these resource types, they may be unused and no longer needed.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

ec2-stopped-instance

Enable this rule to help with the baseline configuration of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances by checking whether Amazon EC2 instances have been stopped for more than the allowed number of days, according to your organization's standards.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

eip-attached

This rule ensures Elastic IPs allocated to a Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) are attached to Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances or in-use Elastic Network Interfaces. This rule helps monitor unused EIPs in your environment.
4.3. Validation - Inventory An up to date listing of all relevant systems and their GMP functionality (inventory) should be available. For critical systems an up to date system description detailing the physical and logical arrangements, data flows and interfaces with other systems or processes, any hardware and software pre-requisites, and security measures should be available.

vpc-network-acl-unused-check

This rule ensures that Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network access control lists are in use. Monitoring for unused network access control lists can assist in accurate inventory and management of your environment.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

aurora-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Aurora resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

backup-plan-min-frequency-and-min-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup plan is set for a minimum frequency and retention. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredFrequencyValue (Config default: 1), requiredRetentionDays (Config default: 35) and requiredFrequencyUnit (Config default: days) parameters. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

backup-recovery-point-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your AWS Backup recovery points. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

backup-recovery-point-manual-deletion-disabled

Ensure that your AWS Backup recovery points have an attached resource-based policy which prevents deletion of recovery points. Using a resource-based policy to prevent deletion of recovery points can assist in preventing accidental or intentional deletion.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

backup-recovery-point-minimum-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup recovery points have a minimum retention period set. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredRetentionDays (config default: 35) parameter. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

ebs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

ec2-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

efs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

fsx-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon FSx file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
4.8. Validation - Data Transfer If data are transferred to another data format or system, validation should include checks that data are not altered in value and/or meaning during this migration process.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

aurora-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Aurora resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

backup-plan-min-frequency-and-min-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup plan is set for a minimum frequency and retention. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredFrequencyValue (Config default: 1), requiredRetentionDays (Config default: 35) and requiredFrequencyUnit (Config default: days) parameters. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

backup-recovery-point-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your AWS Backup recovery points. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

backup-recovery-point-manual-deletion-disabled

Ensure that your AWS Backup recovery points have an attached resource-based policy which prevents deletion of recovery points. Using a resource-based policy to prevent deletion of recovery points can assist in preventing accidental or intentional deletion.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

backup-recovery-point-minimum-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup recovery points have a minimum retention period set. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredRetentionDays (config default: 35) parameter. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

ebs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

ec2-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

efs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

fsx-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon FSx file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
5. Data Computerised systems exchanging data electronically with other systems should include appropriate built-in checks for the correct and secure entry and processing of data, in order to minimize the risks.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

api-gw-cache-enabled-and-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your API Gateway stage's cache. Because sensitive data can be captured for the API method, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

cloudwatch-log-group-encrypted

To help protect sensitive data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon CloudWatch Log Groups.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

cloud-trail-encryption-enabled

Because sensitive data may exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your AWS CloudTrail trails.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

dynamodb-table-encrypted-kms

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon DynamoDB tables. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in these tables, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data. By default, DynamoDB tables are encrypted with an AWS owned customer master key (CMK).
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

ec2-ebs-encryption-by-default

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in these volumes, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

efs-encrypted-check

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic File System (EFS).
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

elasticsearch-encrypted-at-rest

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon OpenSearch Service (OpenSearch Service) domains.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

encrypted-volumes

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

rds-snapshot-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) snapshots. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

rds-storage-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon RDS instances, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

s3-bucket-server-side-encryption-enabled

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon S3 buckets, enable encryption to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

s3-default-encryption-kms

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in an Amazon S3 bucket, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

sagemaker-endpoint-configuration-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker endpoint. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker endpoint, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

sagemaker-notebook-instance-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker notebook. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker notebook, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.1. Data Storage - Damage Protection Data should be secured by both physical and electronic means against damage. Stored data should be checked for accessibility, readability and accuracy. Access to data should be ensured throughout the retention period.

sns-encrypted-kms

To help protect data at rest, ensure that your Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topics require encryption using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because sensitive data can exist at rest in published messages, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

aurora-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Aurora resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

backup-plan-min-frequency-and-min-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup plan is set for a minimum frequency and retention. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredFrequencyValue (Config default: 1), requiredRetentionDays (Config default: 35) and requiredFrequencyUnit (Config default: days) parameters. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

backup-recovery-point-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your AWS Backup recovery points. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

backup-recovery-point-manual-deletion-disabled

Ensure that your AWS Backup recovery points have an attached resource-based policy which prevents deletion of recovery points. Using a resource-based policy to prevent deletion of recovery points can assist in preventing accidental or intentional deletion.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

backup-recovery-point-minimum-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup recovery points have a minimum retention period set. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredRetentionDays (config default: 35) parameter. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

ebs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

ec2-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

efs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

fsx-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon FSx file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
7.2. Data Storage - Backups Regular back-ups of all relevant data should be done. Integrity and accuracy of backup data and the ability to restore the data should be checked during validation and monitored periodically.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
9. Audit Trails Consideration should be given, based on a risk assessment, to building into the system the creation of a record of all GMP-relevant changes and deletions (a system generated "audit trail"). For change or deletion of GMP-relevant data the reason should be documented. Audit trails need to be available and convertible to a generally intelligible form and regularly reviewed.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
10. Change and Configuration Management Any changes to a computerised system including system configurations should only be made in a controlled manner in accordance with a defined procedure.

elb-deletion-protection-enabled

This rule ensures that Elastic Load Balancing has deletion protection enabled. Use this feature to prevent your load balancer from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
10. Change and Configuration Management Any changes to a computerised system including system configurations should only be made in a controlled manner in accordance with a defined procedure.

rds-cluster-deletion-protection-enabled

Ensure Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances have deletion protection enabled. Use deletion protection to prevent your Amazon RDS instances from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
10. Change and Configuration Management Any changes to a computerised system including system configurations should only be made in a controlled manner in accordance with a defined procedure.

rds-instance-deletion-protection-enabled

Ensure Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances have deletion protection enabled. Use deletion protection to prevent your Amazon RDS instances from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
11. Periodic Evaluation Computerised systems should be periodically evaluated to confirm that they remain in a valid state and are compliant with GMP. Such evaluations should include, where appropriate, the current range of functionality, deviation records, incidents, problems, upgrade history, performance, reliability, security and validation status reports.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

codebuild-project-environment-privileged-check

To assist with implementing the principle of least privilege, ensure your Amazon CodeBuild project environment does not have privileged mode enabled. This setting should be disabled to prevent unintended access to Docker APIs as well as the container’s underlying hardware.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ec2-instance-profile-attached

EC2 instance profiles pass an IAM role to an EC2 instance. Attaching an instance profile to your instances can assist with least privilege and permissions management.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ecs-containers-nonprivileged

To assist with implementing the principle of least privilege, Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) task definitions should not have elevated privilege enabled. When this parameter is true, the container is given elevated privileges on the host container instance (similar to the root user).
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ecs-containers-readonly-access

Enabling read only access to Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) containers can assist in adhering to the principal of least privilege. This option can reduces attack vectors as the container instance’s filesystem cannot be modified unless it has explicit read-write permissions.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ecs-task-definition-nonroot-user

To assist with implementing the principle of least privilege, ensure that a non-root user is designated for access to your Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) task definitions.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ecs-task-definition-user-for-host-mode-check

If a task definition has elevated privileges it is because the customer has specifically opted-in to those configurations. This control checks for unexpected privilege escalation when a task definition has host networking enabled but the customer has not opted-in to elevated privileges.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

efs-access-point-enforce-root-directory

Enforcing a root directory for an Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) access point helps restrict data access by ensuring that users of the access point can only reach files of the specified subdirectory.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

efs-access-point-enforce-user-identity

To assist with implementing the principle of least privilege, ensure user enforcement is enabled for your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) .When enabled, Amazon EFS replaces the NFS client's user and group IDs with the identity configured on the access point for all file system operations and only grants access to this enforced user identity.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-full-access

Ensure IAM Actions are restricted to only those actions that are needed. Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

opensearch-access-control-enabled

Ensure fine-grained access control is enabled on your Amazon OpenSearch Service domains. Fine-grained access control provides enhanced authorization mechanisms to achieve least-privileged access to Amazon OpenSearch Service domains. It allows for role-based access control to the domain, as well as index, document, and field-level security, support for OpenSearch Service dashboards multi-tenancy, and HTTP basic authentication for OpenSearch Service and Kibana.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

rds-instance-iam-authentication-enabled

Ensure an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) authentication is enabled on Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances to control access to systems and assets. This enforces network traffic to and from the database to be encrypted using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). You are not required to store user credentials in the database, as authentication is managed externally.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

s3-bucket-acl-prohibited

This rule checks to see if Access Control Lists (ACLs) are used to for access control on Amazon S3 Buckets. ACLs are legacy access control mechanisms for Amazon S3 buckets that predate AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM). Instead of ACLs, it is a best practice to use IAM policies or S3 bucket policies to more easily manage access to your S3 buckets.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

ssm-document-not-public

Ensure AWS Systems Manager (SSM) documents are not public, as this may allow unintended access to your SSM documents. A public SSM document can expose information about your account, resources and internal processes.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

emr-kerberos-enabled

The access permissions and authorizations can be managed and incorporated with the principles of least privilege and separation of duties, by enabling Kerberos for Amazon EMR clusters. In Kerberos, the services and the users that need to authenticate are known as principals. The principals exist within a Kerberos realm. Within the realm, a Kerberos server is known as the key distribution center (KDC). It provides a means for the principals to authenticate. The KDC authenticates by issuing tickets for authentication. The KDC maintains a database of the principals within its realm, their passwords, and other administrative information about each principal.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

iam-customer-policy-blocked-kms-actions

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing blocked actions on all AWS Key Management Service keys. Having more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties. This rule allows you to set the blockedActionsPatterns parameter. (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: kms:Decrypt, kms:ReEncryptFrom). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

iam-inline-policy-blocked-kms-actions

Ensure an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user, IAM role or IAM group does not have an inline policy to allow blocked actions on all AWS Key Management Service keys. AWS recommends to use managed policies instead of inline policies. The managed policies allow reusability, versioning, rolling back, and delegating permissions management. This rule allows you to set the blockedActionsPatterns parameter. (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: kms:Decrypt, kms:ReEncryptFrom). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

s3-bucket-public-read-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

s3-bucket-public-write-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
12.1. Security - Authorized Persons Physical and/or logical controls should be in place to restrict access to computerised system to authorised persons. Suitable methods of preventing unauthorised entry to the system may include the use of keys, pass cards, personal codes with passwords, biometrics, restricted access to computer equipment and data storage areas.

sagemaker-notebook-no-direct-internet-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon SageMaker notebooks do not allow direct internet access. By preventing direct internet access, you can keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
12.3. Security - Authorization Audit Trail Creation, change, and cancellation of access authorisations should be recorded.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

codebuild-project-logging-enabled

Ensure AWS CodeBuild project logging is enabled so that your build output logs are sent to either Amazon CloudWatch or Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Build output logs provide detailed information about your build project.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

elasticsearch-logs-to-cloudwatch

Ensure Amazon OpenSearch Service domains have error logs enabled and streamed to Amazon CloudWatch Logs for retention and response. Domain error logs can assist with security and access audits, and can help to diagnose availability issues.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

opensearch-audit-logging-enabled

Ensure audit logging is enabled on your Amazon OpenSearch Service domains. Audit logging allows you to track user activity on your OpenSearch domains, including authentication successes and failures, requests to OpenSearch, index changes, and incoming search queries.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

opensearch-logs-to-cloudwatch

Ensure Amazon OpenSearch Service domains have error logs enabled and streamed to Amazon CloudWatch Logs for retention and response. OpenSearch Service error logs can assist with security and access audits, and can help to diagnose availability issues.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

redshift-audit-logging-enabled

To capture information about connections and user activities on your Amazon Redshift cluster, ensure audit logging is enabled.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

cloud-trail-cloud-watch-logs-enabled

Use Amazon CloudWatch to centrally collect and manage log event activity. Inclusion of AWS CloudTrail data provides details of API call activity within your AWS account.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

rds-logging-enabled

To help with logging and monitoring within your environment, ensure Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) logging is enabled. With Amazon RDS logging, you can capture events such as connections, disconnections, queries, or tables queried.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
12.4. Security - Audit Trail Management systems for data and for documents should be designed to record the identity of operators entering, changing, confirming or deleting data including date and time.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
13. Incident Management All incidents, not only system failures and data errors, should be reported and assessed. The root cause of a critical incident should be identified and should form the basis of corrective and preventive actions.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
13. Incident Management All incidents, not only system failures and data errors, should be reported and assessed. The root cause of a critical incident should be identified and should form the basis of corrective and preventive actions.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

aurora-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Aurora resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

backup-plan-min-frequency-and-min-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup plan is set for a minimum frequency and retention. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredFrequencyValue (Config default: 1), requiredRetentionDays (Config default: 35) and requiredFrequencyUnit (Config default: days) parameters. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

backup-recovery-point-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your AWS Backup recovery points. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

backup-recovery-point-manual-deletion-disabled

Ensure that your AWS Backup recovery points have an attached resource-based policy which prevents deletion of recovery points. Using a resource-based policy to prevent deletion of recovery points can assist in preventing accidental or intentional deletion.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

backup-recovery-point-minimum-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup recovery points have a minimum retention period set. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredRetentionDays (config default: 35) parameter. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

ebs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

ec2-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

efs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

elbv2-multiple-az

Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) automatically distributes your incoming traffic across multiple targets, such as EC2 instances, containers, and IP addresses, in an availability zone. To ensure high availability, ensure your ELB has registered instances from multiple Availability Zones.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

elb-cross-zone-load-balancing-enabled

Enable cross-zone load balancing for your Elastic Load Balancers (ELBs) to help maintain adequate capacity and availability. The cross-zone load balancing reduces the need to maintain equivalent numbers of instances in each enabled availability zone. It also improves your application's ability to handle the loss of one or more instances.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

fsx-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon FSx file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

lambda-vpc-multi-az-check

If your AWS Lambda function is configured to connect to a virtual private cloud (VPC) in your account, deploy the AWS Lambda function in at least two different Availability Zones to ensure that it is your function is available to process events in case of a service interruption in a single zone.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

opensearch-data-node-fault-tolerance

Amazon OpenSearch Service (OpenSearch Service) requires at least three data nodes for high availability and fault-tolerance. Deploying an OpenSearch Service domain with at least three data nodes ensures cluster operations if a node fails.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

rds-cluster-deletion-protection-enabled

Ensure Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances have deletion protection enabled. Use deletion protection to prevent your Amazon RDS instances from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

rds-instance-deletion-protection-enabled

Ensure Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances have deletion protection enabled. Use deletion protection to prevent your Amazon RDS instances from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

elb-deletion-protection-enabled

This rule ensures that Elastic Load Balancing has deletion protection enabled. Use this feature to prevent your load balancer from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

rds-cluster-multi-az-enabled

Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) clusters should have Multi-AZ replication enabled to assist in the availability of the data that is stored. Each Availability Zone runs on its own physically distinct, independent infrastructure, and is engineered to be highly reliable. In case of an infrastructure failure, Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby so that you can resume database operations as soon as the failover is complete.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

rds-multi-az-support

Multi-AZ support in Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) provides enhanced availability and durability for database instances. When you provision a Multi-AZ database instance, Amazon RDS automatically creates a primary database instance, and synchronously replicates the data to a standby instance in a different Availability Zone. Each Availability Zone runs on its own physically distinct, independent infrastructure, and is engineered to be highly reliable. In case of an infrastructure failure, Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby so that you can resume database operations as soon as the failover is complete.
16. Business Continuity For the availability of computerised systems supporting critical processes, provisions should be made to ensure continuity of support for those processes in the event of a system breakdown (e.g. a manual or alternative system). The time required to bring the alternative arrangements into use should be based on risk and appropriate for a particular system and the business process it supports. These arrangements should be adequately documented and tested.

vpc-vpn-2-tunnels-up

Redundant Site-to-Site VPN tunnels can be implemented to achieve resilience requirements. It uses two tunnels to help ensure connectivity in case one of the Site-to-Site VPN connections becomes unavailable. To protect against a loss of connectivity, in case your customer gateway becomes unavailable, you can set up a second Site-to-Site VPN connection to your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and virtual private gateway by using a second customer gateway.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

aurora-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Aurora resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

backup-plan-min-frequency-and-min-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup plan is set for a minimum frequency and retention. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredFrequencyValue (Config default: 1), requiredRetentionDays (Config default: 35) and requiredFrequencyUnit (Config default: days) parameters. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

backup-recovery-point-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your AWS Backup recovery points. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

backup-recovery-point-manual-deletion-disabled

Ensure that your AWS Backup recovery points have an attached resource-based policy which prevents deletion of recovery points. Using a resource-based policy to prevent deletion of recovery points can assist in preventing accidental or intentional deletion.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

backup-recovery-point-minimum-retention-check

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your AWS Backup recovery points have a minimum retention period set. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements. This rule allows you to set the requiredRetentionDays (config default: 35) parameter. The actual value should reflect your organizations requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

dynamodb-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon DynamoDB tables are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

ebs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

ebs-optimized-instance

An optimized instance in Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O operations. This optimization provides the most efficient performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O operations and other traffic from your instance.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

ebs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

ec2-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) resources are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

efs-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

efs-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

fsx-resources-protected-by-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon FSx file systems are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

rds-in-backup-plan

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are a part of an AWS Backup plan. AWS Backup is a fully managed backup service with a policy-based backup solution. This solution simplifies your backup management and enables you to meet your business and regulatory backup compliance requirements.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

redshift-backup-enabled

To help with data back-up processes, ensure your Amazon Redshift clusters have automated snapshots. When automated snapshots are enabled for a cluster, Redshift periodically takes snapshots of that cluster. By default, Redshift takes a snapshot every eight hours or every 5 GB per node of data changes, or whichever comes first.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
17. Archiving Data may be archived. This data should be checked for accessibility, readability and integrity. If relevant changes are to be made to the system (e.g. computer equipment or programs), then the ability to retrieve the data should be ensured and tested.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.

Template

The template is available on GitHub: Operational Best Practices for GxP EU Annex 11.