AWS Lambda function logging in Python - AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda function logging in Python

Note

End of support for the Python 2.7 runtime starts on July 15, 2021. For more information, see Runtime support policy.

AWS Lambda automatically monitors Lambda functions on your behalf and sends function metrics to Amazon CloudWatch. Your Lambda function comes with a CloudWatch Logs log group and a log stream for each instance of your function. The Lambda runtime environment sends details about each invocation to the log stream, and relays logs and other output from your function's code.

This page describes how to produce log output from your Lambda function's code, or access logs using the AWS Command Line Interface, the Lambda console, or the CloudWatch console.

Creating a function that returns logs

To output logs from your function code, you can use the print method, or any logging library that writes to stdout or stderr. The following example logs the values of environment variables and the event object.

Example lambda_function.py

import os def lambda_handler(event, context): print('## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES') print(os.environ) print('## EVENT') print(event)

Example log format

START RequestId: 8f507cfc-xmpl-4697-b07a-ac58fc914c95 Version: $LATEST ## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES environ({'AWS_LAMBDA_LOG_GROUP_NAME': '/aws/lambda/my-function', 'AWS_LAMBDA_LOG_STREAM_NAME': '2020/01/31/[$LATEST]3893xmpl7fac4485b47bb75b671a283c', 'AWS_LAMBDA_FUNCTION_NAME': 'my-function', ...}) ## EVENT {'key': 'value'} END RequestId: 8f507cfc-xmpl-4697-b07a-ac58fc914c95 REPORT RequestId: 8f507cfc-xmpl-4697-b07a-ac58fc914c95 Duration: 15.74 ms Billed Duration: 16 ms Memory Size: 128 MB Max Memory Used: 56 MB Init Duration: 130.49 ms XRAY TraceId: 1-5e34a614-10bdxmplf1fb44f07bc535a1 SegmentId: 07f5xmpl2d1f6f85 Sampled: true

The Python runtime logs the START, END, and REPORT lines for each invocation. The report line provides the following details.

Report Log

  • RequestId – The unique request ID for the invocation.

  • Duration – The amount of time that your function's handler method spent processing the event.

  • Billed Duration – The amount of time billed for the invocation.

  • Memory Size – The amount of memory allocated to the function.

  • Max Memory Used – The amount of memory used by the function.

  • Init Duration – For the first request served, the amount of time it took the runtime to load the function and run code outside of the handler method.

  • XRAY TraceId – For traced requests, the AWS X-Ray trace ID.

  • SegmentId – For traced requests, the X-Ray segment ID.

  • Sampled – For traced requests, the sampling result.

Using the Lambda console

You can use the Lambda console to view log output after you invoke a Lambda function. For more information, see Accessing Amazon CloudWatch logs for AWS Lambda.

Using the CloudWatch console

You can use the Amazon CloudWatch console to view logs for all Lambda function invocations.

To view logs on the CloudWatch console

  1. Open the Log groups page on the CloudWatch console.

  2. Choose the log group for your function (/aws/lambda/your-function-name).

  3. Choose a log stream.

Each log stream corresponds to an instance of your function. A log stream appears when you update your Lambda function, and when additional instances are created to handle multiple concurrent invocations. To find logs for a specific invocation, we recommend intrumenting your function with AWS X-Ray. X-Ray records details about the request and the log stream in the trace.

To use a sample application that correlates logs and traces with X-Ray, see Error processor sample application for AWS Lambda.

Using the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI)

The AWS CLI is an open-source tool that enables you to interact with AWS services using commands in your command line shell. To complete the steps in this section, you must have the following:

You can use the AWS CLI to retrieve logs for an invocation using the --log-type command option. The response contains a LogResult field that contains up to 4 KB of base64-encoded logs from the invocation.

Example retrieve a log ID

The following example shows how to retrieve a log ID from the LogResult field for a function named my-function.

aws lambda invoke --function-name my-function out --log-type Tail

You should see the following output:

{ "StatusCode": 200, "LogResult": "U1RBUlQgUmVxdWVzdElkOiA4N2QwNDRiOC1mMTU0LTExZTgtOGNkYS0yOTc0YzVlNGZiMjEgVmVyc2lvb...", "ExecutedVersion": "$LATEST" }

Example decode the logs

In the same command prompt, use the base64 utility to decode the logs. The following example shows how to retrieve base64-encoded logs for my-function.

aws lambda invoke --function-name my-function out --log-type Tail \ --query 'LogResult' --output text | base64 -d

You should see the following output:

START RequestId: 57f231fb-1730-4395-85cb-4f71bd2b87b8 Version: $LATEST "AWS_SESSION_TOKEN": "AgoJb3JpZ2luX2VjELj...", "_X_AMZN_TRACE_ID": "Root=1-5d02e5ca-f5792818b6fe8368e5b51d50;Parent=191db58857df8395;Sampled=0"",ask/lib:/opt/lib", END RequestId: 57f231fb-1730-4395-85cb-4f71bd2b87b8 REPORT RequestId: 57f231fb-1730-4395-85cb-4f71bd2b87b8 Duration: 79.67 ms Billed Duration: 80 ms Memory Size: 128 MB Max Memory Used: 73 MB

The base64 utility is available on Linux, macOS, and Ubuntu on Windows. macOS users may need to use base64 -D.

Example get-logs.sh script

In the same command prompt, use the following script to download the last five log events. The script uses sed to remove quotes from the output file, and sleeps for 15 seconds to allow time for the logs to become available. The output includes the response from Lambda and the output from the get-log-events command.

Copy the contents of the following code sample and save in your Lambda project directory as get-logs.sh.

The cli-binary-format option is required if you are using AWS CLI version 2. You can also configure this option in your AWS CLI config file.

#!/bin/bash aws lambda invoke --function-name my-function --cli-binary-format raw-in-base64-out --payload '{"key": "value"}' out sed -i'' -e 's/"//g' out sleep 15 aws logs get-log-events --log-group-name /aws/lambda/my-function --log-stream-name $(cat out) --limit 5

Example macOS and Linux (only)

In the same command prompt, macOS and Linux users may need to run the following command to ensure the script is executable.

chmod -R 755 get-logs.sh

Example retrieve the last five log events

In the same command prompt, run the following script to get the last five log events.

./get-logs.sh

You should see the following output:

{ "StatusCode": 200, "ExecutedVersion": "$LATEST" } { "events": [ { "timestamp": 1559763003171, "message": "START RequestId: 4ce9340a-b765-490f-ad8a-02ab3415e2bf Version: $LATEST\n", "ingestionTime": 1559763003309 }, { "timestamp": 1559763003173, "message": "2019-06-05T19:30:03.173Z\t4ce9340a-b765-490f-ad8a-02ab3415e2bf\tINFO\tENVIRONMENT VARIABLES\r{\r \"AWS_LAMBDA_FUNCTION_VERSION\": \"$LATEST\",\r ...", "ingestionTime": 1559763018353 }, { "timestamp": 1559763003173, "message": "2019-06-05T19:30:03.173Z\t4ce9340a-b765-490f-ad8a-02ab3415e2bf\tINFO\tEVENT\r{\r \"key\": \"value\"\r}\n", "ingestionTime": 1559763018353 }, { "timestamp": 1559763003218, "message": "END RequestId: 4ce9340a-b765-490f-ad8a-02ab3415e2bf\n", "ingestionTime": 1559763018353 }, { "timestamp": 1559763003218, "message": "REPORT RequestId: 4ce9340a-b765-490f-ad8a-02ab3415e2bf\tDuration: 26.73 ms\tBilled Duration: 27 ms \tMemory Size: 128 MB\tMax Memory Used: 75 MB\t\n", "ingestionTime": 1559763018353 } ], "nextForwardToken": "f/34783877304859518393868359594929986069206639495374241795", "nextBackwardToken": "b/34783877303811383369537420289090800615709599058929582080" }

Deleting logs

Log groups aren't deleted automatically when you delete a function. To avoid storing logs indefinitely, delete the log group, or configure a retention period after which logs are deleted automatically.

Logging library

For more detailed logs, use the logging library.

import os import logging logger = logging.getLogger() logger.setLevel(logging.INFO) def lambda_handler(event, context): logger.info('## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES') logger.info(os.environ) logger.info('## EVENT') logger.info(event)

The output from logger includes the log level, timestamp, and request ID.

START RequestId: 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 Version: $LATEST [INFO] 2020-01-31T22:12:58.534Z 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 ## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [INFO] 2020-01-31T22:12:58.534Z 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 environ({'AWS_LAMBDA_LOG_GROUP_NAME': '/aws/lambda/my-function', 'AWS_LAMBDA_LOG_STREAM_NAME': '2020/01/31/[$LATEST]1bbe51xmplb34a2788dbaa7433b0aa4d', 'AWS_LAMBDA_FUNCTION_NAME': 'my-function', ...}) [INFO] 2020-01-31T22:12:58.535Z 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 ## EVENT [INFO] 2020-01-31T22:12:58.535Z 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 {'key': 'value'} END RequestId: 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 REPORT RequestId: 1c8df7d3-xmpl-46da-9778-518e6eca8125 Duration: 2.75 ms Billed Duration: 3 ms Memory Size: 128 MB Max Memory Used: 56 MB Init Duration: 113.51 ms XRAY TraceId: 1-5e34a66a-474xmpl7c2534a87870b4370 SegmentId: 073cxmpl3e442861 Sampled: true