Overview of AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) in Amazon Neptune - Amazon Neptune

Overview of AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) in Amazon Neptune

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) is an AWS service that helps an administrator securely control access to AWS resources. IAM administrators control who can be authenticated (signed in) and authorized (have permissions) to use Neptune resources. IAM is an AWS service that you can use with no additional charge.

You can use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) to authenticate to your Neptune DB instance or DB cluster. When IAM database authentication is enabled, each request must be signed using AWS Signature Version 4.

AWS Signature Version 4 adds authentication information to AWS requests. For security, all requests to Neptune DB clusters with IAM authentication enabled must be signed with an access key. This key consists of an access key ID and secret access key. The authentication is managed externally using IAM policies.

Neptune authenticates on connection, and for WebSockets connections it verifies the permissions periodically to ensure that the user still has access.

Note
  • Revoking, deleting, or rotating of credentials associated with the IAM user is not recommended because it does not terminate any connections that are already open.

  • There are limits on the number of concurrent WebSocket connections per database instance, and on how long a connection can remain open. For more information, see WebSockets Limits.

IAM Use Depends on Your Role

How you use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) differs, depending on the work you do in Neptune.

Service user – If you use the Neptune service to do your job, then your administrator provides you with the credentials and permissions that you need for using the Neptune data plane. As you need more access to do your work, understanding how data access is managed can help you request the right permissions from your administrator.

Service administrator – If you're in charge of Neptune resources at your company, you probably have access to Neptune management actions, which correspond to the Neptune managment API. It may also be your job to determine which Neptune data-access actions and resources service users need in order to do their jobs. An IAM administrator can then apply IAM policies to change the permissions of your service users.

IAM administrator – If you're an IAM administrator, you will need to write IAM policies to manage both management and data access to Neptune. To view example Neptune identity-based policies that you can use, see Using different kinds of IAM policies for controlling access to Neptune.

Authenticating with Identities

Authentication is how you sign in to AWS using your identity credentials. For more information about signing in using the AWS Management Console, see Signing in to the AWS Management Console as an IAM user or root user in the IAM User Guide.

You must be authenticated (signed in to AWS) as the AWS account root user, an IAM user, or by assuming an IAM role. You can also use your company's single sign-on authentication or even sign in using Google or Facebook. In these cases, your administrator previously set up identity federation using IAM roles. When you access AWS using credentials from another company, you are assuming a role indirectly.

To sign in directly to the AWS Management Console, use your password with your root user email address or your IAM user name. You can access AWS programmatically using your root user or IAM users access keys. AWS provides SDK and command line tools to cryptographically sign your request using your credentials. If you don't use AWS tools, you must sign the request yourself. Do this using Signature Version 4, a protocol for authenticating inbound API requests. For more information about authenticating requests, see Signature Version 4 signing process in the AWS General Reference.

Regardless of the authentication method that you use, you might also be required to provide additional security information. For example, AWS recommends that you use multi-factor authentication (MFA) to increase the security of your account. To learn more, see Using multi-factor authentication (MFA) in AWS in the IAM User Guide.

AWS account root user

When you create an AWS account, you begin with one sign-in identity that has complete access to all AWS services and resources in the account. This identity is called the AWS account root user and is accessed by signing in with the email address and password that you used to create the account. We strongly recommend that you do not use the root user for your everyday tasks. Safeguard your root user credentials and use them to perform the tasks that only the root user can perform. For the complete list of tasks that require you to sign in as the root user, see Tasks that require root user credentials in the AWS General Reference.

IAM Users and Groups

An IAM user is an identity within your AWS account that has specific permissions for a single person or application. Where possible, we recommend relying on temporary credentials instead of creating IAM users who have long-term credentials such as passwords and access keys. However, if you have specific use cases that require long-term credentials with IAM users, we recommend that you rotate access keys. For more information, see Rotate access keys regularly for use cases that require long-term credentials in the IAM User Guide.

An IAM group is an identity that specifies a collection of IAM users. You can't sign in as a group. You can use groups to specify permissions for multiple users at a time. Groups make permissions easier to manage for large sets of users. For example, you could have a group named IAMAdmins and give that group permissions to administer IAM resources.

Users are different from roles. A user is uniquely associated with one person or application, but a role is intended to be assumable by anyone who needs it. Users have permanent long-term credentials, but roles provide temporary credentials. To learn more, see When to create an IAM user (instead of a role) in the IAM User Guide.

IAM Roles

An IAM role is an identity within your AWS account that has specific permissions. It is similar to an IAM user, but is not associated with a specific person. You can temporarily assume an IAM role in the AWS Management Console by switching roles. You can assume a role by calling an AWS CLI or AWS API operation or by using a custom URL. For more information about methods for using roles, see Using IAM roles in the IAM User Guide.

IAM roles with temporary credentials are useful in the following situations:

  • Federated user access – To assign permissions to a federated identity, you create a role and define permissions for the role. When a federated identity authenticates, the identity is associated with the role and is granted the permissions that are defined by the role. For information about roles for federation, see Creating a role for a third-party Identity Provider in the IAM User Guide. If you use IAM Identity Center, you configure a permission set. To control what your identities can access after they authenticate, IAM Identity Center correlates the permission set to a role in IAM. For information about permissions sets, see Permission sets in the AWS IAM Identity Center (successor to AWS Single Sign-On) User Guide.

  • Temporary IAM user permissions – An IAM user or role can assume an IAM role to temporarily take on different permissions for a specific task.

  • Cross-account access – You can use an IAM role to allow someone (a trusted principal) in a different account to access resources in your account. Roles are the primary way to grant cross-account access. However, with some AWS services, you can attach a policy directly to a resource (instead of using a role as a proxy). To learn the difference between roles and resource-based policies for cross-account access, see How IAM roles differ from resource-based policies in the IAM User Guide.

  • Cross-service access – Some AWS services use features in other AWS services. For example, when you make a call in a service, it's common for that service to run applications in Amazon EC2 or store objects in Amazon S3. A service might do this using the calling principal's permissions, using a service role, or using a service-linked role.

    • Principal permissions – When you use an IAM user or role to perform actions in AWS, you are considered a principal. Policies grant permissions to a principal. When you use some services, you might perform an action that then triggers another action in a different service. In this case, you must have permissions to perform both actions. To see whether an action requires additional dependent actions in a policy, see in the Service Authorization Reference.

    • Service role – A service role is an IAM role that a service assumes to perform actions on your behalf. An IAM administrator can create, modify, and delete a service role from within IAM. For more information, see Creating a role to delegate permissions to an AWS service in the IAM User Guide.

    • Service-linked role – A service-linked role is a type of service role that is linked to an AWS service. The service can assume the role to perform an action on your behalf. Service-linked roles appear in your IAM account and are owned by the service. An IAM administrator can view, but not edit the permissions for service-linked roles.

  • Applications running on Amazon EC2 – You can use an IAM role to manage temporary credentials for applications that are running on an EC2 instance and making AWS CLI or AWS API requests. This is preferable to storing access keys within the EC2 instance. To assign an AWS role to an EC2 instance and make it available to all of its applications, you create an instance profile that is attached to the instance. An instance profile contains the role and enables programs that are running on the EC2 instance to get temporary credentials. For more information, see Using an IAM role to grant permissions to applications running on Amazon EC2 instances in the IAM User Guide.

To learn whether to use IAM roles or IAM users, see When to create an IAM role (instead of a user) in the IAM User Guide.