Connect SageMaker Studio Notebooks in a VPC to External Resources - Amazon SageMaker

Connect SageMaker Studio Notebooks in a VPC to External Resources

The following topic gives information on how to connect Studio Notebooks in a VPC to external resources.

Default communication with the internet

By default, SageMaker Studio provides a network interface that allows communication with the internet through a VPC managed by SageMaker. Traffic to AWS services like Amazon S3 and CloudWatch goes through an internet gateway, as does traffic that accesses the SageMaker API and SageMaker runtime. Traffic between the domain and your Amazon EFS volume goes through the VPC that you specified when you onboarded to Studio or called the CreateDomain API. The following diagram shows the default configuration.

                    SageMaker Studio VPC diagram depicting direct internet access

VPC only communication with the internet

To prevent SageMaker from providing internet access to your Studio notebooks, you can disable internet access by specifying the VPC only network access type when you onboard to Studio or call the CreateDomain API. As a result, you won't be able to run a Studio notebook unless your VPC has an interface endpoint to the SageMaker API and runtime, or a NAT gateway with internet access, and your security groups allow outbound connections. The following diagram shows a configuration for using VPC-only mode.

                    SageMaker Studio VPC diagram depicting usage of VPC-only mode.

Requirements to use VPC only mode

When you choose VpcOnly, follow these steps:

  1. You must use private subnets only. You cannot use public subnets in VpcOnly mode.

  2. Ensure your subnets have the required number of IP addresses needed. The expected number of IP addresses needed per user can vary based on use case. We recommend between 2 and 4 IP addresses per user. The total IP address capacity for a Studio domain is the sum of available IP addresses for each subnet provided when the domain is created. Ensure that your estimated IP address usage does not exceed the capacity supported by the number of subnets you provide. Additionally, using subnets distributed across many availability zones can aid in IP address availability. For more information, see VPC and subnet sizing for IPv4.


    You can configure only subnets with a default tenancy VPC in which your instance runs on shared hardware. For more information on the tenancy attribute for VPCs, see Dedicated Instances.

  3. Warning

    When using VpcOnly mode, you partly own the networking configuration for the domain. We recommend the security best practice of applying least-privilege permissions to the inbound and outbound access that security group rules provide. Overly permissive inbound rule configurations could allow users with access to the VPC to interact with the applications of other user profiles without authentication.

    Set up one or more security groups with inbound and outbound rules that allow the following traffic:

    Create a distinct security group for each user profile and add inbound access from that same security group. We do not recommend reusing a domain-level security group for user profiles. If the domain-level security group allows inbound access to itself, then all applications in the domain would have access to all other applications in the domain.

  4. If you want to allow internet access, you must use a NAT gateway with access to the internet, for example through an internet gateway.

  5. If you don't want to allow internet access, create interface VPC endpoints (AWS PrivateLink) to allow Studio to access the following services with the corresponding service names. You must also associate the security groups for your VPC with these endpoints.

    • SageMaker API : com.amazonaws.region.sagemaker.api

    • SageMaker runtime: com.amazonaws.region.sagemaker.runtime. This is required to run Studio notebooks and to train and host models.

    • Amazon S3: com.amazonaws.region.s3.

    • To use SageMaker Projects: com.amazonaws.region.servicecatalog.

    • Any other AWS services you require.

    If you use the SageMaker Python SDK to run remote training jobs, you must also create the following Amazon VPC endpoints.

    • AWS Security Token Service: com.amazonaws.region.sts

    • Amazon CloudWatch: com.amazonaws.region.logs. This is required to allow SageMaker Python SDK to get the remote training job status from Amazon CloudWatch.


For a customer working within VPC mode, company firewalls can cause connection issues with SageMaker Studio or between JupyterServer and the KernelGateway. Make the following checks if you encounter one of these issues when using SageMaker Studio from behind a firewall.

  • Check that the Studio URL is in your networks allowlist.

  • Check that the websocket connections are not blocked. Jupyter uses websocket under the hood. If the KernelGateway application is InService, JupyterServer may not be able to connect to the KernelGateway. You should see this problem when opening System Terminal as well.