Amazon Forecast
Developer Guide

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Datasets and Dataset Groups

Datasets contain the data used to train a predictor. You create one or more Amazon Forecast datasets and import your training data into them. A dataset group is a collection of complimentary datasets that detail a set of changing parameters over a series of time. After creating a dataset group, you use it to train a predictor.

Each dataset group can have up to three datasets, one of each dataset type: TARGET_TIME_SERIES, RELATED_TIME_SERIES, and ITEM_METADATA.

To create and manage Forecast datasets and dataset groups, you can use the Forecast console, AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or AWS SDK.


To create and manage Forecast datasets, you can use the Forecast APIs, including the CreateDataset and DescribeDataset operations. For a complete list of Forecast APIs, see API Reference.

When creating a dataset, you provide information, such as the following:

  • The frequency/interval at which you recorded your data. For example, you might aggregate and record retail item sales every week. In the Getting Started exercise, you use the average electricity used per hour.

  • The prediction format (the domain) and dataset type (within the domain). A dataset domain specifies which type of forecast you'd like to perform, while a dataset type helps you organize your training data into Forecast-friendly categories.

  • The dataset schema. A schema maps the column headers of your dataset. For instance, when monitoring demand, you might have collected hourly data on the sales of an item at multiple stores. In this case, your schema would define the order, from left to right, in which timestamp, location, and hourly sales appear in your training data file. Schemas also define each column's data type, such as string or integer.

Each column in your Forecast dataset represents a forecast dimension. Some dimensions, like timestamp, are required in TARGET_TIME_SERIES and RELATED_TIME_SERIES datasets.

Dataset Domains and Dataset Types

When you create a Forecast dataset, you choose a domain and a dataset type. Forecast provides domains for a number of use cases, such as forecasting retail demand or web traffic. You can also create a custom domain. For a complete list of Forecast domains, see Predefined Dataset Domains and Dataset Types.

Within each domain, Forecast users can specify the following types of datasets:

  • TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset (Required) – Use this dataset type when your training data is a time series and it includes the field that you want to generate a forecast for. This field is called the target field.

  • RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset (Optional) – Choose this dataset type when your training data is a time series, but it doesn't include the target field. For instance, if you're forecasting item demand, a RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset might have price as a dimension, but not demand.

  • ITEM_METADATA dataset (Optional) – Choose this dataset type when your training data isn't time-series data, but includes metadata information about the items in the TARGET_TIME_SERIES or RELATED_TIME)SERIES datasets. For instance, if you're forecasting item demand, an ITEM_METADATA dataset might color or brand as dimensions. Forecast only considers the data provided by an ITEM_METADATA dataset type when you use the DeepAR+ algorithm.

Depending on the information in your training data and what you want to forecast, you might create more than one dataset.

For example, suppose that you want to generate a forecast for the demand of retail items, such as shoes and socks. You might create the following datasets in the RETAIL domain:

  • TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset – Includes the historical time-series demand data for the retail items (item_id, timestamp, and the target field demand). Because it designates the target field that you want to forecast, you must have at least one TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset in a dataset group.

    You can also add up to ten other dimensions to a TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset. If you include only a TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset in your dataset group, you can create forecasts at either the item level or the forecast dimension level of granularity only. For more information, see CreatePredictor.

  • RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset – Includes historical time-series data other than the target field, such as price or revenue. Because RELATED_TIME_SERIES data must be mappable to TARGET_TIME_SERIES data, each RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset must contain the same identifying fields. In the RETAIL domain, these would be item_id and timestamp.

    A RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset might contain hypothetical values that you can base your forecast off of. For example, you might include price data in your RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset on the future dates that you want to generate a forecast for. For more information, see Using RELATED_TIME_SERIES Datasets.

  • ITEM_METADATA dataset – Includes metadata for the retail items. Examples of metadata include brand, category,color, and genre.

Example Dataset with a Forecast Dimension

Following on the preceding example, imagine that you want to forecast the demand for shoes and socks based on a store's previous sales. In the following TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset, store is a time-series forecast dimension, while demand is the target field. Socks are sold in two store locations (NYC and SFO), and shoes are sold only in ORD.

The first three rows of this table contain the first available sales data for the NYC, SFO, and ORD stores. The last three rows contain the last recorded sales data for each store. The ... row represents all of the item sales data recorded between the first and last entries.

timestamp item_id store demand
2019-01-01 socks NYC 25
2019-01-05 socks SFO 45
2019-02-01 shoes ORD 10
2019-06-01 socks NYC 100
2019-06-05 socks SFO 5
2019-07-01 shoes ORD 50

Dataset Schema

Each dataset requires a schema, a user-provided JSON mapping of the dimensions in your training data. This is where you list both the required and optional dimensions that you want to include in your dataset.

Some domains have optional dimensions that we recommend including. Optional dimensions are listed in the descriptions of each domain later in this guide. For an example, see RETAIL Domain. All optional fields are treated as forecast dimensions and take the data type string.

A schema is required for every dataset. The following is an example of a schema.

{ "attributes": [ { "attributeName": "item_id", "attributeType": "string" }, { "attributeName": "timestamp", "attributeType": "timestamp" }, { "attributeName": "demand", "attributeType": "float" }, { "attributeName": "dimension1", "attributeType": "string" } ] }

When you upload your training data to the dataset that uses this schema, Forecast assumes that the item_id field is column 1 in your data, the timestamp field is column 2, the demand field is column 3, and the dimension1 field is column 4.

For the RELATED_TIME_SERIES dataset type, all related features must have a float or integer attribute type. For the ITEM_METADATA dataset type, all features must have a string attribute type. For more information, see SchemaAttribute.


The attributeName and attributeType attributes are required for every field and dimension in the dataset. Forecast reserves a number of names that can't be used as the name of a schema attribute. For the list of reserved names, see Reserved Field Names.

Dataset Groups

A dataset group is a collection of one to three complimentary datasets, one of each dataset type. You import datasets to a dataset group, then use the dataset group to train a predictor.

Forecast includes the following operations to create dataset groups and add datasets to them:

Importing Data to a Dataset

To import data to your dataset, use the CreateDatasetImportJob operation. Forecast can read only CSV files, and the input data must be stored in an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket.

For example, in Getting Started, you use electricity usage time-series data to train a predictor. To import this data to Forecast, you do the following:

  1. Create a dataset of the CUSTOM domain type and TARGET_TIME_SERIES dataset type.

  2. Create a schema for the dataset that maps the electricity usage column in your data as the target field.

  3. Add the data to your Amazon S3 bucket.

  4. Call the CreateDatasetImportJob operation to import the data.

For dataset format requirements and troubleshooting information, see Dataset Import Guidelines for Forecast.

Resolving Conflicts in Data Collection Frequency

Forecast can import data that isn't aligned with the collection frequency specified in the CreateDataset operation. For example, you can import data for which the collection frequency is hourly and some of the data isn't timestamped at the top of the hour (02:20, 02:45). Forecast aggregates the data to match the aligned value. The following tables show an example aggregation.


Time Data At Top of the Hour
2018-03-03 01:00:00 100 Yes
2018-03-03 02:20:00 50 No
2018-03-03 02:45:00 20 No
2018-03-03 04:00:00 120 Yes


Time Data Notes
2018-03-03 01:00:00 100
2018-03-03 02:00:00 70 Sum of the values between 02:00:00-02:59:59 (50 + 20)
2018-03-03 03:00:00 Empty No values between 03:00:00-03:59:59
2018-03-03 04:00:00 120

Time Boundaries

Time Boundaries

The following table lists the time alignment boundaries Forecast uses when aggregating data.

Frequency Boundary
Year First day of the year (January 1)
Month First day of the month
Week Most recent Monday
Hour Last top of the hour (09:00:00, 13:00:00)
Minute Last top of the minute (45:00, 06:00)

The following figure shows how Forecast transforms data to fit the weekly boundary:

Data Aggregation Guidelines

Forecast doesn't assume that your data is from any specific time zone. However, it makes the following assumptions when aggregating time series data:

  • All data is from the same time zone.

  • All forecasts are in the same time zone as the data in the dataset.

  • If you specify the SupplementaryFeature holiday feature in the InputDataConfig parameter for the CreatePredictor operation, the input data is from the same country.