Overview of managing access - Amazon Simple Storage Service

Welcome to the new Amazon S3 User Guide! The Amazon S3 User Guide combines information and instructions from the three retired guides: Amazon S3 Developer Guide, Amazon S3 Console User Guide, and Amazon S3 Getting Started Guide.

Overview of managing access

When granting permissions in Amazon S3, you decide who is getting the permissions, which Amazon S3 resources they are getting permissions for, and the specific actions you want to allow on those resources. The following sections provide an overview of Amazon S3 resources and how to determine the best method to control access to them.

Amazon S3 resources: buckets and objects

In AWS, a resource is an entity that you can work with. In Amazon S3, buckets and objects are the resources, and both have associated subresources.

Bucket subresources include the following:

Object subresources include the following:

  • acl – Stores a list of access permissions on the object. For more information, see Managing access with ACLs.

  • restore – Supports temporarily restoring an archived object. For more information, see POST Object restore in the Amazon Simple Storage Service API Reference.

    An object in the S3 Glacier storage class is an archived object. To access the object, you must first initiate a restore request, which restores a copy of the archived object. In the request, you specify the number of days that you want the restored copy to exist. For more information about archiving objects, see Managing your storage lifecycle.

Amazon S3 bucket and object ownership

Buckets and objects are Amazon S3 resources. By default, only the resource owner can access these resources. The resource owner refers to the AWS account that creates the resource. For example:

  • The AWS account that you use to create buckets and upload objects owns those resources.

  • If you upload an object using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user or role credentials, the AWS account that the user or role belongs to owns the object.

  • A bucket owner can grant cross-account permissions to another AWS account (or users in another account) to upload objects. In this case, the AWS account that uploads objects owns those objects. The bucket owner does not have permissions on the objects that other accounts own, with the following exceptions:

    • The bucket owner pays the bills. The bucket owner can deny access to any objects, or delete any objects in the bucket, regardless of who owns them.

    • The bucket owner can archive any objects or restore archived objects regardless of who owns them. Archival refers to the storage class used to store the objects. For more information, see Managing your storage lifecycle.

Ownership and request authentication

All requests to a bucket are either authenticated or unauthenticated. Authenticated requests must include a signature value that authenticates the request sender, and unauthenticated requests do not. For more information about request authentication, see Making requests.

A bucket owner can allow unauthenticated requests. For example, unauthenticated PUT Object requests are allowed when a bucket has a public bucket policy, or when a bucket ACL grants WRITE or FULL_CONTROL access to the All Users group or the anonymous user specifically. For more information about public bucket policies and public access control lists (ACLs), see The meaning of "public".

All unauthenticated requests are made by the anonymous user. This user is represented in ACLs by the specific canonical user ID 65a011a29cdf8ec533ec3d1ccaae921c. If an object is uploaded to a bucket through an unauthenticated request, the anonymous user owns the object. The default object ACL grants FULL_CONTROL to the anonymous user as the object's owner. Therefore, Amazon S3 allows unauthenticated requests to retrieve the object or modify its ACL.

To prevent objects from being modified by the anonymous user, we recommend that you do not implement bucket policies that allow anonymous public writes to your bucket or use ACLs that allow the anonymous user write access to your bucket. You can enforce this recommended behavior by using Amazon S3 Block Public Access.

For more information about blocking public access, see Blocking public access to your Amazon S3 storage. For more information about ACLs, see Managing access with ACLs.

Important

We recommend that you don't use the AWS account root user credentials to make authenticated requests. Instead, create an IAM user and grant that user full access. We refer to these users as administrator users. You can use the administrator user credentials, instead of AWS account root user credentials, to interact with AWS and perform tasks, such as create a bucket, create users, and grant permissions. For more information, see AWS account root user credentials and IAM user credentials in the AWS General Reference and Security best practices in IAM in the IAM User Guide.

Resource operations

Amazon S3 provides a set of operations to work with the Amazon S3 resources. For a list of available operations, see Actions defined by Amazon S3.

Managing access to resources

Managing access refers to granting others (AWS accounts and users) permission to perform the resource operations by writing an access policy. For example, you can grant PUT Object permission to a user in an AWS account so the user can upload objects to your bucket. In addition to granting permissions to individual users and accounts, you can grant permissions to everyone (also referred as anonymous access) or to all authenticated users (users with AWS credentials). For example, if you configure your bucket as a website, you may want to make objects public by granting the GET Object permission to everyone.

Access policy options

Access policy describes who has access to what. You can associate an access policy with a resource (bucket and object) or a user. Accordingly, you can categorize the available Amazon S3 access policies as follows:

  • Resource-based policies – Bucket policies and access control lists (ACLs) are resource-based because you attach them to your Amazon S3 resources.

    
							Diagram depicting AWS account resources, including an S3 bucket
								with a bucket ACL and bucket policy, and S3 objects with object
								ACLs.
    • ACL – Each bucket and object has an ACL associated with it. An ACL is a list of grants identifying grantee and permission granted. You use ACLs to grant basic read/write permissions to other AWS accounts. ACLs use an Amazon S3–specific XML schema.

      The following is an example bucket ACL. The grant in the ACL shows a bucket owner as having full control permission.

      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <AccessControlPolicy xmlns="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01/"> <Owner> <ID>*** Owner-Canonical-User-ID ***</ID> <DisplayName>owner-display-name</DisplayName> </Owner> <AccessControlList> <Grant> <Grantee xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="Canonical User"> <ID>*** Owner-Canonical-User-ID ***</ID> <DisplayName>display-name</DisplayName> </Grantee> <Permission>FULL_CONTROL</Permission> </Grant> </AccessControlList> </AccessControlPolicy>

      Both bucket and object ACLs use the same XML schema.

    • Bucket policy – For your bucket, you can add a bucket policy to grant other AWS accounts or IAM users permissions for the bucket and the objects in it. Any object permissions apply only to the objects that the bucket owner creates. Bucket policies supplement, and in many cases, replace ACL-based access policies.

      The following is an example bucket policy. You express bucket policy (and user policy) using a JSON file. The policy grants anonymous read permission on all objects in a bucket. The bucket policy has one statement, which allows the s3:GetObject action (read permission) on objects in a bucket named examplebucket.  By specifying the principal with a wild card (*), the policy grants anonymous access, and should be used carefully. For example, the following bucket policy would make objects publicly accessible.

      { "Version":"2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid":"GrantAnonymousReadPermissions", "Effect":"Allow", "Principal": "*", "Action":["s3:GetObject"], "Resource":["arn:aws:s3:::awsexamplebucket1/*"] } ] }
  • User policies – You can use IAM to manage access to your Amazon S3 resources. You can create IAM users, groups, and roles in your account and attach access policies to them granting them access to AWS resources, including Amazon S3.

    
							Diagram depicting the AWS account admin and other users with
								attached user policies.

    For more information about IAM, see AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM).

    The following is an example of a user policy. You cannot grant anonymous permissions in an IAM user policy, because the policy is attached to a user. The example policy allows the associated user that it's attached to perform six different Amazon S3 actions on a bucket and the objects in it. You can attach this policy to a specific IAM user, group, or role.

    { "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": [ { "Sid": "AssignUserActions", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": [ "s3:PutObject", "s3:GetObject", "s3:ListBucket", "s3:DeleteObject", "s3:GetBucketLocation" ], "Resource": [ "arn:aws:s3:::awsexamplebucket1/*", "arn:aws:s3:::awsexamplebucket1" ] }, { "Sid": "ExampleStatement2", "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "s3:ListAllMyBuckets", "Resource": "*" } ] }

When Amazon S3 receives a request, it must evaluate all the access policies to determine whether to authorize or deny the request. For more information about how Amazon S3 evaluates these policies, see How Amazon S3 authorizes a request.

Access Analyzer for S3

On the Amazon S3 console, you can use Access Analyzer for S3 to review all buckets that have bucket access control lists (ACLs), bucket policies, or access point policies that grant public or shared access. Access Analyzer for S3 alerts you to buckets that are configured to allow access to anyone on the internet or other AWS accounts, including AWS accounts outside of your organization. For each public or shared bucket, you receive findings that report the source and level of public or shared access.

In Access Analyzer for S3, you can block all public access to a bucket with a single click. We recommend that you block all access to your buckets unless you require public access to support a specific use case. Before you block all public access, ensure that your applications will continue to work correctly without public access. For more information, see Blocking public access to your Amazon S3 storage.

You can also drill down into bucket-level permission settings to configure granular levels of access. For specific and verified use cases that require public or shared access, you can acknowledge and record your intent for the bucket to remain public or shared by archiving the findings for the bucket. You can revisit and modify these bucket configurations at any time. You can also download your findings as a CSV report for auditing purposes.

Access Analyzer for S3 is available at no extra cost on the Amazon S3 console. Access Analyzer for S3 is powered by AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer. To use Access Analyzer for S3 on the Amazon S3 console, you must visit the IAM console and create an account-level analyzer in IAM Access Analyzer on a per-Region basis.

For more information about Access Analyzer for S3, see Reviewing bucket access using Access Analyzer for S3.

Which access control method should I use?

With the options available to write an access policy, the following questions arise:

  • When should I use which access control method? For example, to grant bucket permissions, should I use a bucket policy or bucket ACL?

    I own a bucket and the objects in the bucket. Should I use a resource-based access policy or an IAM user policy?

    If I use a resource-based access policy, should I use a bucket policy or an object ACL to manage object permissions?

  • I own a bucket, but I don't own all of the objects in it. How are access permissions managed for the objects that somebody else owns?

  • If I grant access by using a combination of these access policy options, how does Amazon S3 determine if a user has permission to perform a requested operation?

The following sections explain these access control alternatives, how Amazon S3 evaluates access control mechanisms, and when to use which access control method. They also provide example walkthroughs.