Security OU – Security Tooling account - AWS Prescriptive Guidance

Security OU – Security Tooling account

The following diagram illustrates the AWS security services that are configured in the Security Tooling account.

        Security services for Security Tooling account

The Security Tooling account is dedicated to operating security services, monitoring AWS accounts, and automating security alerting and response. The security objectives include the following:

  • Provide a dedicated enclave with controlled access to manage access to the security guardrails, monitoring, and response.

  • Maintain the appropriate centralized security infrastructure to monitor security operations data and maintain traceability. Detection, investigation, and response are essential parts of the security lifecycle and can be used to support a quality process, a legal or compliance obligation, and for threat identification and response efforts.

  • Further support a defense-in-depth strategy by maintaining another layer of control over appropriate security configuration and operations such as encryption keys and security group settings. This is an account where security operators work. Read-only/audit roles to view AWS organization-wide information are typical, whereas write/modify roles are limited in number, tightly controlled, monitored, and logged.

Design consideration

It might be appropriate to have more than one Security Tooling account. For example, monitoring and responding to security events is often assigned to a dedicated team. Network security might warrant its own account and roles in collaboration with the cloud infrastructure or network team. Such splits retain the objective of separating centralized security enclaves and further emphasize the separation of duties, least privilege, and potential simplicity of team assignments.

Delegated administrator for security services

The Security Tooling account serves as the administrator account for security services that are managed in an administrator/member structure throughout the AWS accounts. As mentioned earlier, this is handled through the AWS Organizations delegated administrator functionality. Services in the AWS SRA that currently support delegated administrator include AWS Config, AWS Firewall Manager, Amazon GuardDuty, AWS IAM Access Analyzer, Amazon Macie, AWS Security Hub, and AWS Systems Manager. The security team manages the security features of these services and monitors any security-specific events or findings.

AWS Security Hub

AWS Security Hub provides you with a comprehensive view of your security state in AWS and helps you check your environment against security industry standards and best practices. Security Hub collects security data from across AWS integrated services, supported third-party products, and other custom security products you may use. It helps you continuously monitor and analyze your security trends and identify the highest priority security issues.

Security Hub integrates with AWS Organizations to simplify security posture management across all your existing and future accounts in your AWS organization. The Security Hub delegated administrator account (in this case, Security Tooling) has Security Hub enabled automatically and can choose the AWS accounts to enable as member accounts. The Security Hub delegated administrator account can also view findings, view insights, and control details from all member accounts.

Security Hub supports integrations with several AWS services. Amazon GuardDuty, AWS Config, Amazon Macie, AWS IAM Access Analyzer, AWS Firewall Manager, Amazon Inspector, and AWS Systems Manager Patch Manager can feed findings to Security Hub. In addition, you can pivot from Security Hub to Amazon Detective to investigate an Amazon GuardDuty finding. Security Hub recommends aligning the delegated administrator accounts for these services (where they exist) for smoother integration. For example, if you do not align administrator accounts between Detective and Security Hub, pivoting from findings into Detective will not work.

In addition to monitoring, Security Hub supports integration with Amazon EventBridge to automate remediation of specific findings. You can define custom actions to take when a finding is received. For example, you can configure custom actions to send findings to a ticketing system or to an automated remediation system. Further discussion and examples are available in these two AWS blog posts: Automated Response and Remediation with AWS Security Hub and How to deploy the AWS Solution for Security Hub Automated Response and Remediation.

Security Hub uses service-linked AWS Config rules to perform most of its security checks for controls. To support these controls, AWS Config must be enabled on all accounts—including the administrator (or delegated administrator) account and member accounts—in each AWS Region where Security Hub is enabled.

Design considerations
  • In addition to the specific, managed AWS Config rules that Security Hub uses, you can use automation to import other AWS Config rules to Security Hub so that your AWS Config rules show up along with your other security findings. This allows you to more easily use AWS Config rules to help ensure continuous compliance across all your AWS accounts. For more information, see the blog post How to import AWS Config rules evaluations as findings in Security Hub.

  • If a compliance standard, such as PCI-DSS, is already present in Security Hub, then the fully managed Security Hub service is the easiest way to operationalize it. However, if you want to assemble your own compliance or security standard, which might include security, operational, or cost optimization checks, AWS Config conformance packs offer a simplified way to do this customization. (For more information about AWS Config and conformance packs, see the AWS Config section.)

Amazon GuardDuty

Amazon GuardDuty is a threat detection service that continuously monitors for malicious activity and unauthorized behavior to protect your AWS accounts and workloads. You should always capture and store appropriate logs for monitoring and audit purposes, but GuardDuty pulls independent streams of data directly from AWS CloudTrail, VPC flow logs, and AWS DNS logs. You don’t have to manage Amazon S3 bucket policies or modify the way you collect and store your logs. GuardDuty permissions are managed as service-linked roles that you can revoke at any time by disabling GuardDuty. This makes it easy to enable the service without complex configuration, and it eliminates the risk that an IAM permission modification or S3 bucket policy change will affect the operation of the service.

GuardDuty is enabled in all accounts through AWS Organizations, and all findings are viewable and actionable by appropriate security teams in the GuardDuty delegated administrator account (in this case, the Security Tooling account).

When AWS Security Hub is enabled, GuardDuty findings automatically flow to Security Hub. When Amazon Detective is enabled, GuardDuty findings are included in the Detective log ingest process. GuardDuty and Detective support cross-service user workflows, where GuardDuty provides links from the console that redirect you from a selected finding to a Detective page that contains a curated set of visualizations for investigating that finding. You can also integrate GuardDuty with Amazon EventBridge to automate best practices for GuardDuty, such as automating responses to new GuardDuty findings.

AWS Config

AWS Config is a service that enables you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configurations of supported AWS resources in your AWS accounts. AWS Config continuously monitors and records AWS resource configurations, and automatically evaluates recorded configurations against desired configurations. You can also integrate AWS Config with other services to do the heavy lifting in automated audit and monitoring pipelines. For example, AWS Config can monitor for changes in individual secrets in AWS Secrets Manager.

AWS Config must be enabled for each member account in the AWS organization and for each AWS Region that contains the resources that you want to protect. You can centrally manage (for example, create, update, and delete) AWS Config rules across all accounts within your AWS organization. From the AWS Config delegated administrator account, you can deploy a common set of AWS Config rules across all accounts and specify accounts where AWS Config rules should not be created. The AWS Config delegated administrator account can also aggregate resource configuration and compliance data from all member accounts to provide a single view. Use the APIs from the delegated administrator account to enforce governance by ensuring that the underlying AWS Config rules are not modifiable by your AWS organization’s member accounts.

Design considerations
  • AWS Config streams all configuration and compliance change notifications to Amazon EventBridge. This means that you can use the native filtering capabilities in EventBridge to filter AWS Config events so that you can route specific types of notifications to specific targets. For example, you can send compliance notifications for specific rules or resource types to specific email addresses, or route configuration change notifications to an external IT service management (ITSM) or configuration management database (CMDB) tool. For more information, see the blog post AWS Config best practices.

  • A conformance pack is a collection of AWS Config rules and remediation actions that can be easily deployed as a single entity in an account and Region, or across an organization in AWS Organizations. Conformance packs are created by authoring a YAML template that contains the list of AWS Config managed or custom rules and remediation actions. To get started evaluating your AWS environment, use one of the sample conformance pack templates.

Amazon Macie

Amazon Macie is a fully managed data security and data privacy service that uses machine learning and pattern matching to discover and protect your sensitive data in AWS. You need to understand the type and classification of data your workload is processing to ensure that appropriate controls are enforced. Macie automates the discovery of sensitive data at scale. With Macie, you can perform various sensitive content discovery and data classification tasks on objects in Amazon S3. Macie is enabled in all accounts through AWS Organizations. Principals who have the appropriate permissions in the delegated administrator account (in this case, the Security Tooling account) can enable or suspend Macie in any account, create sensitive data discovery jobs for buckets that are owned by member accounts, and view all policy findings for all member accounts. Sensitive data findings can be viewed only by the account that created the sensitive findings job. For more information, see Managing multiple accounts in Amazon Macie in the Macie documentation.

Macie findings flow to AWS Security Hub for review and analysis. Macie also integrates with Amazon EventBridge to facilitate automated responses to findings such as alerts, feeds to security information and event management (SIEM) systems, and automated remediation.

Design considerations
  • If S3 objects are encrypted with an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) key that you manage, you can add the Macie service-linked role as a key user to that KMS key to enable Macie to scan the data.

  • Macie is optimized for scanning objects in Amazon S3. As a result, any Macie-supported object type that can be placed in Amazon S3 (permanently or temporarily) can be scanned for sensitive data. This means that data from other sources—for example, periodic snapshot exports of Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) or Amazon Aurora databases, exported Amazon DynamoDB tables, or extracted text files from native or third-party applications—can be moved to Amazon S3 and evaluated by Macie.

AWS IAM Access Analyzer

AWS IAM Access Analyzer helps you identify the resources in your AWS organization and accounts, such as Amazon S3 buckets or IAM roles, that are shared with an external entity. This detective control helps you identify unintended access to your data and resources, which is a security risk.

Access Analyzer is deployed in the Security Tooling account through the delegated administrator functionality in AWS Organizations. The delegated administrator has permissions to create and manage analyzers with the AWS organization as the zone of trust. Findings from Access Analyzer automatically flow to Security Hub. Access Analyzer also sends an event to EventBridge for each generated finding, when the status of an existing finding changes, and when a finding is deleted. EventBridge can further direct these events to notification or remediation streams.

Design consideration

To get account-scoped findings (where the account serves as the trusted boundary), you create an account-scoped analyzer in each member account. This should be done as part of the account pipeline. Account-scoped findings flow into Security Hub at the member account level. From there, they flow to the Security Hub delegated administrator account (Security Tooling).

AWS Firewall Manager

AWS Firewall Manager helps protect your network by simplifying your administration and maintenance tasks for AWS WAF, AWS Shield Advanced, Amazon VPC security groups, AWS Network Firewall, and Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall across multiple accounts and resources. With Firewall Manager, you set up your AWS WAF firewall rules, Shield Advanced protections, Amazon VPC security groups, AWS Network Firewall firewalls, and DNS Firewall rule group associations only once. The service automatically applies the rules and protections across your accounts and resources, even as you add new resources.

Firewall Manager is particularly useful when you want to protect your entire AWS organization instead of a small number of specific accounts and resources, or if you frequently add new resources that you want to protect. Firewall Manager uses security policies to let you define a set of configurations, including relevant rules, protections, and actions that must be deployed and the accounts and resources (indicated by tags) to include or exclude. You can create granular and flexible configurations while still being able to scale control out to large numbers of accounts and VPCs. These policies automatically and consistently enforce the rules you configure even when new accounts and resources are created. Firewall Manager is enabled in all accounts through AWS Organizations, and configuration and management are performed by the appropriate security teams in the Firewall Manager delegated administrator account (in this case, the Security Tooling account).

You must enable AWS Config for each AWS Region that contains the resources that you want to protect. If you don't want to enable AWS Config for all resources, you must enable it for resources that are associated with the type of Firewall Manager policies that you use. When you use both AWS Security Hub and Firewall Manager, Firewall Manager automatically sends your findings to Security Hub. Firewall Manager creates findings for resources that are out of compliance and for attacks that it detects, and sends the findings to Security Hub. When you set up a Firewall Manager policy for AWS WAF, you can centrally enable logging on web access control lists (web ACLs) for all in-scope accounts and centralize the logs under a single account.

Design consideration

Account managers of individual member accounts in the AWS organization can configure additional controls (such as AWS WAF rules and VPC security groups) in the Firewall Manager managed services according to their particular needs.

Amazon EventBridge

Amazon EventBridge is a serverless event bus service that makes it easy to connect your applications with data from a variety of sources. It is frequently used in security automation. You can set up routing rules to determine where to send your data to build application architectures that react in real time to all your data sources. You can create a custom event bus to receive events from your custom applications, in addition to using the default event bus in each account. You should create an event bus in the Security Tooling account that can receive security-specific events from other accounts in the AWS organization. For example, by linking AWS Config rules, GuardDuty, and Security Hub with EventBridge, you create a flexible, automated pipeline for routing security data, raising alerts, and managing actions to resolve issues.

Design considerations
  • EventBridge is capable of routing events to a number of different targets. One valuable pattern for automating security actions is to connect particular events to individual AWS Lambda responders, which take appropriate actions. For example, in certain circumstances you might want to use EventBridge to route a public S3 bucket finding to a Lambda responder that corrects the bucket policy and removes the public permissions. These responders should be integrated into your investigative playbooks and runbooks to coordinate response activities.

  • A best practice for a successful security operations team is to integrate the flow of security events and findings into a notification and workflow system such as a ticketing system, a bug/issue system, or another security information and event management (SIEM) system. This takes the workflow out of email and static reports, and helps you route, escalate, and manage events or findings. The flexible routing abilities in EventBridge are a powerful enabler for this integration.

Amazon Detective

Amazon Detective supports your responsive security control strategy by making it easy to analyze, investigate, and quickly identify the root cause of security findings or suspicious activities. Detective automatically extracts time-based events such as login attempts, API calls, and network traffic from AWS CloudTrail logs and Amazon VPC flow logs. Detective consumes these events by using independent streams of CloudTrail logs and VPC flow logs. Detective uses machine learning and visualization to create a unified, interactive view of the behavior of your resources and the interactions among them over time—this is called a behavior graph. You can explore the behavior graph to examine disparate actions such as failed logon attempts or suspicious API calls.

Detective also ingests findings that are detected by Amazon GuardDuty. When an account enables Detective, it becomes the administrator account for the behavior graph. Before you try to enable Detective, make sure that your account has been enrolled in GuardDuty for at least 48 hours. If you do not meet this requirement, you cannot enable Detective.

Administrator accounts invite member accounts to contribute their data to the primary account's behavior graph. When a member account accepts the invitation and is enabled, Detective begins to ingest and extract the member account's data into that behavior graph.

Design consideration

You can navigate to Detective finding profiles from the GuardDuty and Security Hub consoles. These links can help streamline the investigation process. Your account must be the administrative account for both Detective and the service you are pivoting from (GuardDuty or Security Hub). If the primary accounts are the same for the services, the integration links work seamlessly.

Deploying common security services within all AWS accounts

The Apply security services across your AWS organization section earlier in this reference highlighted security services that protect an AWS account, and noted that many of these services can also be configured and managed within AWS Organizations. Some of these services should be deployed in all accounts, and you will see them in the AWS SRA. This enables a consistent set of guardrails and provides centralized monitoring, management, and governance across your AWS organization.

Security Hub, GuardDuty, AWS Config, Access Analyzer, CloudTrail organization trails, and EventBridge appear in all accounts. The first four support the delegated administrator feature discussed previously in the management account, trusted access, and delegated administrators section. CloudTrail currently uses a different aggregation mechanism. EventBridge doesn’t use the centralized control and monitoring mechanism, but this service is included because of its integral role in automating alerts and responses.

Design consideration

Specific account configurations might necessitate additional security services. For example, accounts that manage Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets (our Application account and Log Archive account) should also include Amazon Macie and consider turning on CloudTrail S3 data event logging in these common security services. (Macie supports delegated administration with centralized configuration and monitoring.)