Operational Best Practices for HIPAA Security - AWS Config

Operational Best Practices for HIPAA Security

Conformance packs provide a general-purpose compliance framework designed to enable you to create security, operational or cost-optimization governance checks using managed or custom AWS Config rules and AWS Config remediation actions. Conformance Packs, as sample templates, are not designed to fully ensure compliance with a specific governance or compliance standard. You are responsible for making your own assessment of whether your use of the Services meets applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

The following provides a sample mapping between the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and AWS managed Config rules. Each Config rule applies to a specific AWS resource, and relates to one or more HIPAA controls. A HIPAA control can be related to multiple Config rules. Refer to the table below for more detail and guidance related to these mappings.

This Conformance Pack was validated by AWS Security Assurance Services LLC (AWS SAS), which is a team of Payment Card Industry Qualified Security Assessors (QSAs), HITRUST Certified Common Security Framework Practitioners (CCSFPs), and compliance professionals certified to provide guidance and assessments for various industry frameworks. AWS SAS professionals designed this Conformance Pack to enable a customer to align to a subset of the HIPAA.

AWS Region: All supported AWS Regions except Middle East (Bahrain)

Control ID Control Description AWS Config Rule Guidance
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures to sufficiently reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

alb-http-to-https-redirection-check

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Application Load Balancer automatically redirects unencrypted HTTP requests to HTTPS. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

api-gw-cache-enabled-and-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your API Gateway stage's cache. Because sensitive data can be captured for the API method, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

autoscaling-group-elb-healthcheck-required

The Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) health checks for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Auto Scaling groups support maintenance of adequate capacity and availability. The load balancer periodically sends pings, attempts connections, or sends requests to test Amazon EC2 instances health in an auto-scaling group. If an instance is not reporting back, traffic is sent to a new Amazon EC2 instance.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

cloud-trail-encryption-enabled

Because sensitive data may exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your AWS CloudTrail trails.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

cloud-trail-log-file-validation-enabled

Utilize AWS CloudTrail log file validation to check the integrity of CloudTrail logs. Log file validation helps determine if a log file was modified or deleted or unchanged after CloudTrail delivered it. This feature is built using industry standard algorithms: SHA-256 for hashing and SHA-256 with RSA for digital signing. This makes it computationally infeasible to modify, delete or forge CloudTrail log files without detection.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

cloudwatch-log-group-encrypted

To help protect sensitive data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon CloudWatch Log Groups.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

codebuild-project-envvar-awscred-check

Ensure authentication credentials AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY do not exist within AWS Codebuild project environments. Do not store these variables in clear text. Storing these variables in clear text leads to unintended data exposure and unauthorized access.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

codebuild-project-source-repo-url-check

Ensure the GitHub or Bitbucket source repository URL does not contain personal access tokens, user name and password within AWS Codebuild project environments. Use OAuth instead of personal access tokens or a user name and password to grant authorization for accessing GitHub or Bitbucket repositories.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

dms-replication-not-public

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring DMS replication instances cannot be publicly accessed. DMS replication instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

dynamodb-autoscaling-enabled

Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling uses the AWS Application Auto Scaling service to adjust provisioned throughput capacity that automatically responds to actual traffic patterns. This enables a table or a global secondary index to increase its provisioned read/write capacity to handle sudden increases in traffic, without throttling.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

dynamodb-throughput-limit-check

Enable this rule to ensure that provisioned throughput capacity is checked on your Amazon DynamoDB tables. This is the amount of read/write activity that each table can support. DynamoDB uses this information to reserve sufficient system resources to meet your throughput requirements. This rule generates an alert when the throughput approaches the maximum limit for a customer's account. This rule allows you to optionally set accountRCUThresholdPercentage (Config Default: 80) and accountWCUThresholdPercentage (Config Default: 80) parameters. The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

ebs-snapshot-public-restorable-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring EBS snapshots are not publicly restorable. EBS volume snapshots can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

ec2-ebs-encryption-by-default

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in these volumes, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

ec2-instance-no-public-ip

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances cannot be publicly accessed. Amazon EC2 instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

ec2-instances-in-vpc

Deploy Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) to enable secure communication between an instance and other services within the amazon VPC, without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within anAmazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. Assign Amazon EC2 instances to an Amazon VPC to properly manage access.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

ec2-stopped-instance

Enable this rule to help with the baseline configuration of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances by checking whether Amazon EC2 instances have been stopped for more than the allowed number of days, according to your organization's standards.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

efs-encrypted-check

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic File System (EFS).
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

elasticsearch-encrypted-at-rest

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) domains.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

elasticsearch-in-vpc-only

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) Domains are within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). An Amazon ES domain within an Amazon VPC enables secure communication between Amazon ES and other services within the Amazon VPC without the need for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

elb-acm-certificate-required

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at transit, ensure encryption is enabled for your Elastic Load Balancing. Use AWS Certificate Manager to manage, provision and deploy public and private SSL/TLS certificates with AWS services and internal resources.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

elb-deletion-protection-enabled

This rule ensures that Elastic Load Balancing has deletion protection enabled. Use this feature to prevent your load balancer from being accidentally or maliciously deleted, which can lead to loss of availability for your applications.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

emr-master-no-public-ip

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon EMR cluster master nodes cannot be publicly accessed. Amazon EMR cluster master nodes can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

encrypted-volumes

Because senstive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

restricted-ssh

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Security Groups can help manage network access by providing stateful filtering of ingress and egress network traffic to AWS resources. Not allowing ingress (or remote) traffic from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22 on your resources help you restricting remote access.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

internet-gateway-authorized-vpc-only

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that internet gateways are only attached to authorized Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). Internet gateways allow bi-directional internet access to and from the Amazon VPC that can potentially lead to unauthorized access to Amazon VPC resources.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

kms-cmk-not-scheduled-for-deletion

To help protect data at rest, ensure necessary customer master keys (CMKs) are not scheduled for deletion in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because key deletion is necessary at times, this rule can assist in checking for all keys scheduled for deletion, in case a key was scheduled unintentionally.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

lambda-function-public-access-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring AWS Lambda functions cannot be publicly accessed. Public access can potentially lead to degradation of availability of resources.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

lambda-inside-vpc

Deploy AWS Lambda functions within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) for a secure communication between a function and other services within the Amazon VPC. With this configuration, there is no requirement for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All the traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within an Amazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. To properly manage access, AWS Lambda functions should be assigned to a VPC.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

rds-multi-az-support

Multi-AZ support in Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) provides enhanced availability and durability for database instances. When you provision a Multi-AZ database instance, Amazon RDS automatically creates a primary database instance, and synchronously replicates the data to a standby instance in a different Availability Zone. Each Availability Zone runs on its own physically distinct, independent infrastructure, and is engineered to be highly reliable. In case of an infrastructure failure, Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby so that you can resume database operations as soon as the failover is complete.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

rds-snapshot-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) snapshots. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

rds-snapshots-public-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are not public. Amazon RDS database instances can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

rds-storage-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon RDS instances, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

redshift-cluster-public-access-check

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Redshift clusters are not public. Amazon Redshift clusters can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

redshift-require-tls-ssl

Ensure that your Amazon Redshift clusters require TLS/SSL encryption to connect to SQL clients. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

restricted-common-ports

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring common ports are restricted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) security groups. Not restricting access to ports to trusted sources can lead to attacks against the availability, integrity and confidentiality of systems. This rule allows you to optionally set blockedPort1 - blockedPort5 parameters (Config Defaults: 20,21,3389,3306,4333). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-account-level-public-access-blocks

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets cannot be publicly accessed. This rule helps keeping sensitive data safe from unauthorized remote users by preventing public access. This rule allows you to optionally set the ignorePublicAcls (Config Default: True), blockPublicPolicy (Config Default: True), blockPublicAcls (Config Default: True), and restrictPublicBuckets parameters (Config Default: True). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-default-lock-enabled

Ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket has lock enabled, by default. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in S3 buckets, enforce object locks at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-public-read-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-public-write-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

s3-bucket-server-side-encryption-enabled

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon S3 buckets, enable encryption to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets require requests to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

sagemaker-endpoint-configuration-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker endpoint. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker endpoint, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

sagemaker-notebook-instance-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker notebook. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker notebook, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

sagemaker-notebook-no-direct-internet-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon SageMaker notebooks do not allow direct internet access. By preventing direct internet access, you can keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

sns-encrypted-kms

To help protect data at rest, ensure that your Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topics require encryption using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because sensitive data can exist at rest in published messages, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

vpc-sg-open-only-to-authorized-ports

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring common ports are restricted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Security Groups. Not restricting access on ports to trusted sources can lead to attacks against the availability, integrity and confidentiality of systems. By restricting access to resources within a security group from the internet (0.0.0.0/0) remote access can be controlled to internal systems.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B) Implement security measures sufficient to reduce risks and vulnerabilities to a reasonable and appropriate level to comply with 164.306(a): Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits.

vpc-vpn-2-tunnels-up

Redundant Site-to-Site VPN tunnels can be implemented to achieve resilience requirements. It uses two tunnels to help ensure connectivity in case one of the Site-to-Site VPN connections becomes unavailable. To protect against a loss of connectivity, in case your customer gateway becomes unavailable, you can set up a second Site-to-Site VPN connection to your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and virtual private gateway by using a second customer gateway.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

api-gw-execution-logging-enabled

API Gateway logging displays detailed views of users who accessed the API and the way they accessed the API. This insight enables visibility of user activities.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

cloud-trail-cloud-watch-logs-enabled

Use Amazon CloudWatch to centrally collect and manage log event activity. Inclusion of AWS CloudTrail data provides details of API call activity within your AWS account.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

elb-logging-enabled

Elastic Load Balancing activity is a central point of communication within an environment. Ensure ELB logging is enabled. The collected data provides detailed information about requests sent to the ELB. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D) Implement procedures to regularly review records of information system activity, such as audit logs, access reports, and security incident tracking reports.

vpc-flow-logs-enabled

The VPC flow logs provide detailed records for information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). By default, the flow log record includes values for the different components of the IP flow, including the source, destination, and protocol.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

dms-replication-not-public

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring DMS replication instances cannot be publicly accessed. DMS replication instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

ebs-snapshot-public-restorable-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring EBS snapshots are not publicly restorable. EBS volume snapshots can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

ec2-instance-no-public-ip

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances cannot be publicly accessed. Amazon EC2 instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

ec2-instances-in-vpc

Deploy Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) to enable secure communication between an instance and other services within the amazon VPC, without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within anAmazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. Assign Amazon EC2 instances to an Amazon VPC to properly manage access.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

elasticsearch-in-vpc-only

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) Domains are within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). An Amazon ES domain within an Amazon VPC enables secure communication between Amazon ES and other services within the Amazon VPC without the need for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

lambda-function-public-access-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring AWS Lambda functions cannot be publicly accessed. Public access can potentially lead to degradation of availability of resources.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

lambda-inside-vpc

Deploy AWS Lambda functions within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) for a secure communication between a function and other services within the Amazon VPC. With this configuration, there is no requirement for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All the traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within an Amazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. To properly manage access, AWS Lambda functions should be assigned to a VPC.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

rds-instance-public-access-check

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are not public. Amazon RDS database instances can contain sensitive information, and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

rds-snapshots-public-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are not public. Amazon RDS database instances can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

redshift-cluster-public-access-check

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Redshift clusters are not public. Amazon Redshift clusters can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

s3-account-level-public-access-blocks

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets cannot be publicly accessed. This rule helps keeping sensitive data safe from unauthorized remote users by preventing public access. This rule allows you to optionally set the ignorePublicAcls (Config Default: True), blockPublicPolicy (Config Default: True), blockPublicAcls (Config Default: True), and restrictPublicBuckets parameters (Config Default: True). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-public-read-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-public-write-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.308(a)(3)(i) Implement policies and procedures to ensure that all members of its workforce have appropriate access to electronic protected health information, as provided under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, and to prevent those workforce members who do not have access under paragraph (a)(4) of this section from obtaining access to electronic protected health information.

sagemaker-notebook-no-direct-internet-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon SageMaker notebooks do not allow direct internet access. By preventing direct internet access, you can keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(a) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

api-gw-execution-logging-enabled

API Gateway logging displays detailed views of users who accessed the API and the way they accessed the API. This insight enables visibility of user activities.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

elb-logging-enabled

Elastic Load Balancing activity is a central point of communication within an environment. Ensure ELB logging is enabled. The collected data provides detailed information about requests sent to the ELB. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

emr-kerberos-enabled

The access permissions and authorizations can be managed and incorporated with the principles of least privilege and separation of duties, by enabling Kerberos for Amazon EMR clusters. In Kerberos, the services and the users that need to authenticate are known as principals. The principals exist within a Kerberos realm. Within the realm, a Kerberos server is known as the key distribution center (KDC). It provides a means for the principals to authenticate. The KDC authenticates by issuing tickets for authentication. The KDC maintains a database of the principals within its realm, their passwords, and other administrative information about each principal.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

iam-user-mfa-enabled

Enable this rule to restrict access to resources in the AWS Cloud. This rule ensures multi-factor authentication (MFA) is enabled for all IAM users. MFA adds an extra layer of protection on top of a user name and password. Reduce the incidents of compromised accounts by requiring MFA for IAM users.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

mfa-enabled-for-iam-console-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that MFA is enabled for all AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users that have a console password. MFA adds an extra layer of protection on top of a user name and password. By requiring MFA for IAM users, you can reduce incidents of compromised accounts and keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

root-account-hardware-mfa-enabled

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring hardware MFA is enabled for the root user. The root user is the most privileged user in an AWS account. The MFA adds an extra layer of protection for a user name and password. By requiring MFA for the root user, you can reduce the incidents of compromised AWS accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

root-account-mfa-enabled

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring MFA is enabled for the root user. The root user is the most privileged user in an AWS account. The MFA adds an extra layer of protection for a user name and password. By requiring MFA for the root user, you can reduce the incidents of compromised AWS accounts.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A) Implement procedures for the authorization and/or supervision of workforce members who work with electronic protected health information or in locations where it might be accessed.

vpc-flow-logs-enabled

The VPC flow logs provide detailed records for information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). By default, the flow log record includes values for the different components of the IP flow, including the source, destination, and protocol.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

iam-user-unused-credentials-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you with access permissions and authorizations by checking for IAM passwords and access keys that are not used for a specified time period. If these unused credentials are identified, you should disable and/or remove the credentials, as this may violate the principle of least privilege. This rule requires you to set a value to the maxCredentialUsageAge (Config Default: 90). The actual value should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(B) Implement procedures to determine that the access of a workforce member to electronic protected health information is appropriate.

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.308(a)(3)(ii)(C) Implement procedures for terminating access to electronic protected health information when the employment of, or other arrangement with, a workforce member ends or as required by determinations made as specified in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(b).

access-keys-rotated

The credentials are audited for authorized devices, users, and processes by ensuring IAM access keys are rotated as per organizational policy. Changing the access keys on a regular schedule is a security best practice. It shortens the period an access key is active and reduces the business impact if the keys are compromised. This rule requires an access key rotation value (Config Default: 90). The actual value should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(4)(i) Implement policies and procedures for authorizing access to electronic protected health information that are consistent with the applicable requirements of subpart E of this part.

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.308(a)(4)(i) Implement policies and procedures for authorizing access to electronic protected health information that are consistent with the applicable requirements of subpart E of this part.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(i) Implement policies and procedures for authorizing access to electronic protected health information that are consistent with the applicable requirements of subpart E of this part.

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(i) Implement policies and procedures for authorizing access to electronic protected health information that are consistent with the applicable requirements of subpart E of this part.

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(B) Implement policies and procedures for granting access to electronic protected health information, As one illustrative example, through access to a workstation, transaction, program, process, or other mechanism.

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(B) Implement policies and procedures for granting access to electronic protected health information, As one illustrative example, through access to a workstation, transaction, program, process, or other mechanism.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(B) Implement policies and procedures for granting access to electronic protected health information, As one illustrative example, through access to a workstation, transaction, program, process, or other mechanism.

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(B) Implement policies and procedures for granting access to electronic protected health information, As one illustrative example, through access to a workstation, transaction, program, process, or other mechanism.

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(B) Implement policies and procedures for granting access to electronic protected health information, As one illustrative example, through access to a workstation, transaction, program, process, or other mechanism.

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

secretsmanager-rotation-enabled-check

This rule ensures AWS Secrets Manager secrets have rotation enabled. Rotating secrets on a regular schedule can shorten the period a secret is active, and potentially reduce the business impact if the secret is compromised.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

access-keys-rotated

The credentials are audited for authorized devices, users, and processes by ensuring IAM access keys are rotated as per organizational policy. Changing the access keys on a regular schedule is a security best practice. It shortens the period an access key is active and reduces the business impact if the keys are compromised. This rule requires an access key rotation value (Config Default: 90). The actual value should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-password-policy

The identities and the credentials are issued, managed, and verified based on an organizational IAM password policy. They meet or exceed requirements as stated by NIST SP 800-63 and the Centers for Internet Security (CIS) AWS Foundations Benchmark for password strength. This rule allows you to optionally set RequireUppercaseCharacters (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireLowercaseCharacters (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireSymbols (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireNumbers (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), MinimumPasswordLength (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 14), PasswordReusePrevention (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 24), and MaxPasswordAge (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 90) for your IAM Password Policy. The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

iam-user-unused-credentials-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you with access permissions and authorizations by checking for IAM passwords and access keys that are not used for a specified time period. If these unused credentials are identified, you should disable and/or remove the credentials, as this may violate the principle of least privilege. This rule requires you to set a value to the maxCredentialUsageAge (Config Default: 90). The actual value should reflect your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(4)(ii)(C) Implement policies and procedures that, based upon the covered entity's or the business associate's access authorization policies, establish, document, review, and modify a user's right of access to a workstation, transaction, program, or process.

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.308(a)(6)(i) Implement policies and procedures to address security incidents.

cloudwatch-alarm-action-check

Amazon CloudWatch alarms alert when a metric breaches the threshold for a specified number of evaluation periods. The alarm performs one or more actions based on the value of the metric or expression relative to a threshold over a number of time periods. This rule requires a value for alarmActionRequired (Config Default: True), insufficientDataActionRequired (Config Default: True), okActionRequired (Config Default: False). The actual value should reflect the alarm actions for your environment.
164.308(a)(6)(i) Implement policies and procedures to address security incidents.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.308(a)(6)(i) Implement policies and procedures to address security incidents.

lambda-dlq-check

Enable this rule to help notify the appropriate personnel through Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) or Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) when a function has failed.
164.308(a)(6)(i) Implement policies and procedures to address security incidents.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

api-gw-execution-logging-enabled

API Gateway logging displays detailed views of users who accessed the API and the way they accessed the API. This insight enables visibility of user activities.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

cloud-trail-cloud-watch-logs-enabled

Use Amazon CloudWatch to centrally collect and manage log event activity. Inclusion of AWS CloudTrail data provides details of API call activity within your AWS account.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

elb-logging-enabled

Elastic Load Balancing activity is a central point of communication within an environment. Ensure ELB logging is enabled. The collected data provides detailed information about requests sent to the ELB. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

guardduty-non-archived-findings

Amazon GuardDuty helps you understand the impact of an incident by classifying findings by severity: low, medium, and high. You can use these classifications for determining remediation strategies and priorities. This rule allows you to optionally set the daysLowSev (Config Default: 30), daysMediumSev (Config Default: 7), and daysHighSev (Config Default: 1) for non-archived findings, as required by your organization's policies.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.308(a)(6)(ii) Identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents; mitigate, to the extent practicable, harmful effects of security incidents that are known to the covered entity or business associate; and document security incidents and their outcomes.

vpc-flow-logs-enabled

The VPC flow logs provide detailed records for information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). By default, the flow log record includes values for the different components of the IP flow, including the source, destination, and protocol.
164.308(a)(7)(i) Establish (and implement as needed) policies and procedures for responding to an emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure, and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain electronic protected health information.

autoscaling-group-elb-healthcheck-required

The Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) health checks for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Auto Scaling groups support maintenance of adequate capacity and availability. The load balancer periodically sends pings, attempts connections, or sends requests to test Amazon EC2 instances health in an auto-scaling group. If an instance is not reporting back, traffic is sent to a new Amazon EC2 instance.
164.308(a)(7)(i) Establish (and implement as needed) policies and procedures for responding to an emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure, and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain electronic protected health information.

dynamodb-autoscaling-enabled

Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling uses the AWS Application Auto Scaling service to adjust provisioned throughput capacity that automatically responds to actual traffic patterns. This enables a table or a global secondary index to increase its provisioned read/write capacity to handle sudden increases in traffic, without throttling.
164.308(a)(7)(i) Establish (and implement as needed) policies and procedures for responding to an emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure, and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain electronic protected health information.

rds-multi-az-support

Multi-AZ support in Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) provides enhanced availability and durability for database instances. When you provision a Multi-AZ database instance, Amazon RDS automatically creates a primary database instance, and synchronously replicates the data to a standby instance in a different Availability Zone. Each Availability Zone runs on its own physically distinct, independent infrastructure, and is engineered to be highly reliable. In case of an infrastructure failure, Amazon RDS performs an automatic failover to the standby so that you can resume database operations as soon as the failover is complete.
164.308(a)(7)(i) Establish (and implement as needed) policies and procedures for responding to an emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure, and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
164.308(a)(7)(i) Establish (and implement as needed) policies and procedures for responding to an emergency or other occurrence (for example, fire, vandalism, system failure, and natural disaster) that damages systems that contain electronic protected health information.

vpc-vpn-2-tunnels-up

Redundant Site-to-Site VPN tunnels can be implemented to achieve resilience requirements. It uses two tunnels to help ensure connectivity in case one of the Site-to-Site VPN connections becomes unavailable. To protect against a loss of connectivity, in case your customer gateway becomes unavailable, you can set up a second Site-to-Site VPN connection to your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and virtual private gateway by using a second customer gateway.
164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A) Establish and implement procedures to create and maintain retrievable exact copies of electronic protected health information.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A) Establish and implement procedures to create and maintain retrievable exact copies of electronic protected health information.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A) Establish and implement procedures to create and maintain retrievable exact copies of electronic protected health information.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A) Establish and implement procedures to create and maintain retrievable exact copies of electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A) Establish and implement procedures to create and maintain retrievable exact copies of electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

dms-replication-not-public

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring DMS replication instances cannot be publicly accessed. DMS replication instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

ebs-snapshot-public-restorable-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring EBS snapshots are not publicly restorable. EBS volume snapshots can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

ec2-instance-no-public-ip

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances cannot be publicly accessed. Amazon EC2 instances can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

elasticsearch-in-vpc-only

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) Domains are within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). An Amazon ES domain within an Amazon VPC enables secure communication between Amazon ES and other services within the Amazon VPC without the need for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

emr-kerberos-enabled

The access permissions and authorizations can be managed and incorporated with the principles of least privilege and separation of duties, by enabling Kerberos for Amazon EMR clusters. In Kerberos, the services and the users that need to authenticate are known as principals. The principals exist within a Kerberos realm. Within the realm, a Kerberos server is known as the key distribution center (KDC). It provides a means for the principals to authenticate. The KDC authenticates by issuing tickets for authentication. The KDC maintains a database of the principals within its realm, their passwords, and other administrative information about each principal.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

emr-master-no-public-ip

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon EMR cluster master nodes cannot be publicly accessed. Amazon EMR cluster master nodes can contain sensitive information and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

iam-group-has-users-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring that IAM groups have at least one IAM user. Placing IAM users in groups based on their associated permissions or job function is one way to incorporate least privilege.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

iam-policy-no-statements-with-admin-access

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you incorporate the principles of least privilege and separation of duties with access permissions and authorizations, restricting policies from containing "Effect": "Allow" with "Action": "*" over "Resource": "*". Allowing users to have more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

iam-user-group-membership-check

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) can help you restrict access permissions and authorizations, by ensuring IAM users are members of at least one group. Allowing users more privileges than needed to complete a task may violate the principle of least privilege and separation of duties.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

iam-user-no-policies-check

This rule ensures AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies are attached only to groups or roles to control access to systems and assets. Assigning privileges at the group or the role level helps to reduce opportunity for an identity to receive or retain excessive privileges.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

ec2-instances-in-vpc

Deploy Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) to enable secure communication between an instance and other services within the amazon VPC, without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within anAmazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. Assign Amazon EC2 instances to an Amazon VPC to properly manage access.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

lambda-function-public-access-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring AWS Lambda functions cannot be publicly accessed. Public access can potentially lead to degradation of availability of resources.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

lambda-inside-vpc

Deploy AWS Lambda functions within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) for a secure communication between a function and other services within the Amazon VPC. With this configuration, there is no requirement for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All the traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within an Amazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. To properly manage access, AWS Lambda functions should be assigned to a VPC.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

rds-instance-public-access-check

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are not public. Amazon RDS database instances can contain sensitive information, and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

rds-snapshots-public-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances are not public. Amazon RDS database instances can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

redshift-cluster-public-access-check

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Redshift clusters are not public. Amazon Redshift clusters can contain sensitive information and principles and access control is required for such accounts.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

s3-account-level-public-access-blocks

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets cannot be publicly accessed. This rule helps keeping sensitive data safe from unauthorized remote users by preventing public access. This rule allows you to optionally set the ignorePublicAcls (Config Default: True), blockPublicPolicy (Config Default: True), blockPublicAcls (Config Default: True), and restrictPublicBuckets parameters (Config Default: True). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

s3-bucket-policy-grantee-check

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by enabling s3_ bucket_policy_grantee_check. This rule checks that the access granted by the Amazon S3 bucket is restricted by any of the AWS principals, federated users, service principals, IP addresses, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) IDs that you provide.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

s3-bucket-public-read-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

s3-bucket-public-write-prohibited

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by only allowing authorized users, processes, and devices access to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The management of access should be consistent with the classification of the data.
164.312(a)(1) Implement technical policies and procedures for electronic information systems that maintain electronic protected health information to allow access only to those persons or software programs that have been granted access rights as specified in 164.308(a)(4).

sagemaker-notebook-no-direct-internet-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that Amazon SageMaker notebooks do not allow direct internet access. By preventing direct internet access, you can keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
164.312(a)(2)(i) Assign a unique name and/or number for identifying and tracking user identity.

iam-root-access-key-check

Access to systems and assets can be controlled by checking that the root user does not have access keys attached to their AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role. Ensure that the root access keys are deleted. Instead, create and use role-based AWS accounts to help to incorporate the principle of least functionality.
164.312(a)(2)(ii) Establish (and implement as needed) procedures for obtaining necessary electronic protected health information during an emergency.

dynamodb-pitr-enabled

Enable this rule to check that information has been backed up. It also maintains the backups by ensuring that point-in-time recovery is enabled in Amazon DynamoDB. The recovery maintains continuous backups of your table for the last 35 days.
164.312(a)(2)(ii) Establish (and implement as needed) procedures for obtaining necessary electronic protected health information during an emergency.

db-instance-backup-enabled

The backup feature of Amazon RDS creates backups of your databases and transaction logs. Amazon RDS automatically creates a storage volume snapshot of your DB instance, backing up the entire DB instance. The system allows you to set specific retention periods to meet your resilience requirements.
164.312(a)(2)(ii) Establish (and implement as needed) procedures for obtaining necessary electronic protected health information during an emergency.

elasticache-redis-cluster-automatic-backup-check

When automatic backups are enabled, Amazon ElastiCache creates a backup of the cluster on a daily basis. The backup can be retained for a number of days as specified by your organization. Automatic backups can help guard against data loss. If a failure occurs, you can create a new cluster, which restores your data from the most recent backup.
164.312(a)(2)(ii) Establish (and implement as needed) procedures for obtaining necessary electronic protected health information during an emergency.

s3-bucket-replication-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Cross-Region Replication (CRR) supports maintaining adequate capacity and availability. CRR enables automatic, asynchronous copying of objects across Amazon S3 buckets to help ensure that data availability is maintained.
164.312(a)(2)(ii) Establish (and implement as needed) procedures for obtaining necessary electronic protected health information during an emergency.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

api-gw-cache-enabled-and-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your API Gateway stage's cache. Because sensitive data can be captured for the API method, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

cloud-trail-encryption-enabled

Because sensitive data may exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your AWS CloudTrail trails.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

cloudwatch-log-group-encrypted

To help protect sensitive data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon CloudWatch Log Groups.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

efs-encrypted-check

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic File System (EFS).
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

elasticsearch-encrypted-at-rest

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) domains.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

encrypted-volumes

Because senstive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

kms-cmk-not-scheduled-for-deletion

To help protect data at rest, ensure necessary customer master keys (CMKs) are not scheduled for deletion in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because key deletion is necessary at times, this rule can assist in checking for all keys scheduled for deletion, in case a key was scheduled unintentionally.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

rds-snapshot-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) snapshots. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

rds-storage-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon RDS instances, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

redshift-require-tls-ssl

Ensure that your Amazon Redshift clusters require TLS/SSL encryption to connect to SQL clients. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-server-side-encryption-enabled

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon S3 buckets, enable encryption to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets require requests to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

sagemaker-endpoint-configuration-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker endpoint. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker endpoint, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

sagemaker-notebook-instance-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker notebook. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker notebook, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

sns-encrypted-kms

To help protect data at rest, ensure that your Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topics require encryption using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because sensitive data can exist at rest in published messages, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(a)(2)(iv) Implement a mechanism to encrypt and decrypt electronic protected health information.

ec2-ebs-encryption-by-default

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in these volumes, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

api-gw-execution-logging-enabled

API Gateway logging displays detailed views of users who accessed the API and the way they accessed the API. This insight enables visibility of user activities.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

cloud-trail-cloud-watch-logs-enabled

Use Amazon CloudWatch to centrally collect and manage log event activity. Inclusion of AWS CloudTrail data provides details of API call activity within your AWS account.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

elb-logging-enabled

Elastic Load Balancing activity is a central point of communication within an environment. Ensure ELB logging is enabled. The collected data provides detailed information about requests sent to the ELB. Each log contains information such as the time the request was received, the client's IP address, latencies, request paths, and server responses.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

redshift-cluster-configuration-check

To protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Redshift clusters. You must also ensure that required configurations are deployed on Amazon Redshift clusters. The audit logging should be enabled to provide information about connections and user activities in the database. This rule requires that a value is set for clusterDbEncrypted (Config Default : TRUE), and loggingEnabled (Config Default: TRUE). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.312(b) Implement hardware, software, and/or procedural mechanisms that record and examine activity in information systems that contain or use electronic protected health information.

vpc-flow-logs-enabled

The VPC flow logs provide detailed records for information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). By default, the flow log record includes values for the different components of the IP flow, including the source, destination, and protocol.
164.312(c)(1) Implement policies and procedures to protect electronic protected health information from improper alteration or destruction.

cloud-trail-log-file-validation-enabled

Utilize AWS CloudTrail log file validation to check the integrity of CloudTrail logs. Log file validation helps determine if a log file was modified or deleted or unchanged after CloudTrail delivered it. This feature is built using industry standard algorithms: SHA-256 for hashing and SHA-256 with RSA for digital signing. This makes it computationally infeasible to modify, delete or forge CloudTrail log files without detection.
164.312(c)(1) Implement policies and procedures to protect electronic protected health information from improper alteration or destruction.

s3-bucket-default-lock-enabled

Ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket has lock enabled, by default. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in S3 buckets, enforce object locks at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(c)(1) Implement policies and procedures to protect electronic protected health information from improper alteration or destruction.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
164.312(c)(2) Implement electronic mechanisms to corroborate that electronic protected health information has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.

cloud-trail-log-file-validation-enabled

Utilize AWS CloudTrail log file validation to check the integrity of CloudTrail logs. Log file validation helps determine if a log file was modified or deleted or unchanged after CloudTrail delivered it. This feature is built using industry standard algorithms: SHA-256 for hashing and SHA-256 with RSA for digital signing. This makes it computationally infeasible to modify, delete or forge CloudTrail log files without detection.
164.312(c)(2) Implement electronic mechanisms to corroborate that electronic protected health information has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.

s3-bucket-default-lock-enabled

Ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket has lock enabled, by default. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in S3 buckets, enforce object locks at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(c)(2) Implement electronic mechanisms to corroborate that electronic protected health information has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.

s3-bucket-versioning-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket versioning helps keep multiple variants of an object in the same Amazon S3 bucket. Use versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your Amazon S3 bucket. Versioning helps you to easily recover from unintended user actions and application failures.
164.312(d) Implement procedures to verify that a person or entity seeking access to electronic protected health information is the one claimed.

iam-password-policy

The identities and the credentials are issued, managed, and verified based on an organizational IAM password policy. They meet or exceed requirements as stated by NIST SP 800-63 and the Centers for Internet Security (CIS) AWS Foundations Benchmark for password strength. This rule allows you to optionally set RequireUppercaseCharacters (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireLowercaseCharacters (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireSymbols (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), RequireNumbers (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: true), MinimumPasswordLength (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 14), PasswordReusePrevention (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 24), and MaxPasswordAge (AWS Foundational Security Best Practices value: 90) for your IAM Password Policy. The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.312(d) Implement procedures to verify that a person or entity seeking access to electronic protected health information is the one claimed.

iam-user-mfa-enabled

Enable this rule to restrict access to resources in the AWS Cloud. This rule ensures multi-factor authentication (MFA) is enabled for all IAM users. MFA adds an extra layer of protection on top of a user name and password. Reduce the incidents of compromised accounts by requiring MFA for IAM users.
164.312(d) Implement procedures to verify that a person or entity seeking access to electronic protected health information is the one claimed.

mfa-enabled-for-iam-console-access

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring that MFA is enabled for all AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users that have a console password. MFA adds an extra layer of protection on top of a user name and password. By requiring MFA for IAM users, you can reduce incidents of compromised accounts and keep sensitive data from being accessed by unauthorized users.
164.312(d) Implement procedures to verify that a person or entity seeking access to electronic protected health information is the one claimed.

root-account-hardware-mfa-enabled

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring hardware MFA is enabled for the root user. The root user is the most privileged user in an AWS account. The MFA adds an extra layer of protection for a user name and password. By requiring MFA for the root user, you can reduce the incidents of compromised AWS accounts.
164.312(d) Implement procedures to verify that a person or entity seeking access to electronic protected health information is the one claimed.

root-account-mfa-enabled

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring MFA is enabled for the root user. The root user is the most privileged user in an AWS account. The MFA adds an extra layer of protection for a user name and password. By requiring MFA for the root user, you can reduce the incidents of compromised AWS accounts.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

elasticsearch-in-vpc-only

Manage access to the AWS Cloud by ensuring Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) Domains are within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). An Amazon ES domain within an Amazon VPC enables secure communication between Amazon ES and other services within the Amazon VPC without the need for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

elb-acm-certificate-required

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at transit, ensure encryption is enabled for your Elastic Load Balancing. Use AWS Certificate Manager to manage, provision and deploy public and private SSL/TLS certificates with AWS services and internal resources.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

restricted-ssh

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Security Groups can help manage network access by providing stateful filtering of ingress and egress network traffic to AWS resources. Not allowing ingress (or remote) traffic from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22 on your resources help you restricting remote access.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

ec2-instances-in-vpc

Deploy Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) to enable secure communication between an instance and other services within the amazon VPC, without requiring an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within anAmazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. Assign Amazon EC2 instances to an Amazon VPC to properly manage access.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

lambda-inside-vpc

Deploy AWS Lambda functions within an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) for a secure communication between a function and other services within the Amazon VPC. With this configuration, there is no requirement for an internet gateway, NAT device, or VPN connection. All the traffic remains securely within the AWS Cloud. Because of their logical isolation, domains that reside within an Amazon VPC have an extra layer of security when compared to domains that use public endpoints. To properly manage access, AWS Lambda functions should be assigned to a VPC.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

redshift-require-tls-ssl

Ensure that your Amazon Redshift clusters require TLS/SSL encryption to connect to SQL clients. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

restricted-common-ports

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring common ports are restricted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) security groups. Not restricting access to ports to trusted sources can lead to attacks against the availability, integrity and confidentiality of systems. This rule allows you to optionally set blockedPort1 - blockedPort5 parameters (Config Defaults: 20,21,3389,3306,4333). The actual values should reflect your organization's policies.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets require requests to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(1) Implement technical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to electronic protected health information that is being transmitted over an electronic communications network.

vpc-sg-open-only-to-authorized-ports

Manage access to resources in the AWS Cloud by ensuring common ports are restricted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Security Groups. Not restricting access on ports to trusted sources can lead to attacks against the availability, integrity and confidentiality of systems. By restricting access to resources within a security group from the internet (0.0.0.0/0) remote access can be controlled to internal systems.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

alb-http-to-https-redirection-check

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Application Load Balancer automatically redirects unencrypted HTTP requests to HTTPS. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

cloud-trail-cloud-watch-logs-enabled

Use Amazon CloudWatch to centrally collect and manage log event activity. Inclusion of AWS CloudTrail data provides details of API call activity within your AWS account.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail can help in non-repudiation by recording AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify the users and AWS accounts that called an AWS service, the source IP address where the calls generated, and the timings of the calls. Details of captured data are seen within AWS CloudTrail Record Contents.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

cloudtrail-s3-dataevents-enabled

The collection of Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) data events helps in detecting any anomalous activity. The details include AWS account information that accessed an Amazon S3 bucket, IP address, and time of event.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

elb-acm-certificate-required

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at transit, ensure encryption is enabled for your Elastic Load Balancing. Use AWS Certificate Manager to manage, provision and deploy public and private SSL/TLS certificates with AWS services and internal resources.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

guardduty-enabled-centralized

Amazon GuardDuty can help to monitor and detect potential cybersecurity events by using threat intelligence feeds. These include lists of malicious IPs and machine learning to identify unexpected, unauthorized, and malicious activity within your AWS Cloud environment.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

multi-region-cloudtrail-enabled

AWS CloudTrail records AWS Management Console actions and API calls. You can identify which users and accounts called AWS, the source IP address from where the calls were made, and when the calls occurred. CloudTrail will deliver log files from all AWS Regions to your S3 bucket if MULTI_REGION_CLOUD_TRAIL_ENABLED is enabled. Additionally, when AWS launches a new Region, CloudTrail will create the same trail in the new Region. As a result, you will receive log files containing API activity for the new Region without taking any action.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

redshift-require-tls-ssl

Ensure that your Amazon Redshift clusters require TLS/SSL encryption to connect to SQL clients. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

s3-bucket-logging-enabled

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) server access logging provides a method to monitor the network for potential cybersecurity events. The events are monitored by capturing detailed records for the requests that are made to an Amazon S3 bucket. Each access log record provides details about a single access request. The details include the requester, bucket name, request time, request action, response status, and an error code, if relevant.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets require requests to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(i) Implement security measures to ensure that electronically transmitted electronic protected health information is not improperly modified without detection until disposed of.

securityhub-enabled

AWS Security Hub helps to monitor unauthorized personnel, connections, devices, and software. AWS Security Hub aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes the security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services. Some such services are Amazon Security Hub, Amazon Inspector, Amazon Macie, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Access Analyzer, and AWS Firewall Manager, and AWS Partner solutions.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

alb-http-to-https-redirection-check

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Application Load Balancer automatically redirects unencrypted HTTP requests to HTTPS. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

api-gw-cache-enabled-and-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your API Gateway stage's cache. Because sensitive data can be captured for the API method, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

cloud-trail-encryption-enabled

Because sensitive data may exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your AWS CloudTrail trails.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

cloudwatch-log-group-encrypted

To help protect sensitive data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon CloudWatch Log Groups.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

efs-encrypted-check

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic File System (EFS).
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

elasticsearch-encrypted-at-rest

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) domains.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

elb-acm-certificate-required

Because sensitive data can exist and to help protect data at transit, ensure encryption is enabled for your Elastic Load Balancing. Use AWS Certificate Manager to manage, provision and deploy public and private SSL/TLS certificates with AWS services and internal resources.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

encrypted-volumes

Because senstive data can exist and to help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

rds-storage-encrypted

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) instances. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon RDS instances, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

redshift-require-tls-ssl

Ensure that your Amazon Redshift clusters require TLS/SSL encryption to connect to SQL clients. Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

s3-bucket-server-side-encryption-enabled

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption is enabled for your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in Amazon S3 buckets, enable encryption to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

s3-bucket-ssl-requests-only

To help protect data in transit, ensure that your Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets require requests to use Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Because sensitive data can exist, enable encryption in transit to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

sagemaker-endpoint-configuration-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker endpoint. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker endpoint, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

sagemaker-notebook-instance-kms-key-configured

To help protect data at rest, ensure encryption with AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is enabled for your SageMaker notebook. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in SageMaker notebook, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

sns-encrypted-kms

To help protect data at rest, ensure that your Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topics require encryption using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Because sensitive data can exist at rest in published messages, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

ec2-ebs-encryption-by-default

To help protect data at rest, ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes. Because sensitive data can exist at rest in these volumes, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.
164.312(e)(2)(ii) Implement a mechanism to encrypt electronic protected health information whenever deemed appropriate.

rds-snapshot-encrypted

Ensure that encryption is enabled for your Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) snapshots. Because sensitive data can exist at rest, enable encryption at rest to help protect that data.

Template

The template is available on GitHub: Operational Best Practices for HIPAA Security.