Lambda event source mappings - AWS Lambda

Lambda event source mappings

An event source mapping is a Lambda resource that reads from an event source and invokes a Lambda function. You can use event source mappings to process items from a stream or queue in services that don't invoke Lambda functions directly. Lambda provides event source mappings for the following services.

An event source mapping uses permissions in the function's execution role to read and manage items in the event source. Permissions, event structure, settings, and polling behavior vary by event source. For more information, see the linked topic for the service that you use as an event source.

To manage an event source with the AWS CLI or an AWS SDK, you can use the following API operations:

The following example uses the AWS CLI to map a function named my-function to a DynamoDB stream that its Amazon Resource Name (ARN) specifies, with a batch size of 500.

aws lambda create-event-source-mapping --function-name my-function --batch-size 500 --starting-position LATEST \ --event-source-arn arn:aws:dynamodb:us-east-2:123456789012:table/my-table/stream/2019-06-10T19:26:16.525

You should see the following output:

{ "UUID": "14e0db71-5d35-4eb5-b481-8945cf9d10c2", "BatchSize": 500, "MaximumBatchingWindowInSeconds": 0, "ParallelizationFactor": 1, "EventSourceArn": "arn:aws:dynamodb:us-east-2:123456789012:table/my-table/stream/2019-06-10T19:26:16.525", "FunctionArn": "arn:aws:lambda:us-east-2:123456789012:function:my-function", "LastModified": 1560209851.963, "LastProcessingResult": "No records processed", "State": "Creating", "StateTransitionReason": "User action", "DestinationConfig": {}, "MaximumRecordAgeInSeconds": 604800, "BisectBatchOnFunctionError": false, "MaximumRetryAttempts": 10000 }

Event source mappings read items from a stream or queue in batches. Event source mappings include multiple items in the event that your function receives. You can configure the size of the batch that the event source mapping sends to your function, up to a maximum that varies by service. The number of items in the event can be smaller than the batch size if there aren't enough items available, or if the batch is too large to send in one event and has to be split up. For Amazon SQS and stream event sources, you can also apply filter criteria to incoming events so that you send only certain events to your Lambda function. For more information, see Lambda event filtering.

The following example shows an event source mapping that reads from a Kinesis stream. If a batch of events fails all processing attempts, the event source mapping sends details about the batch to an SQS queue.

      An event source mapping reads from a Kinesis stream. It queues records locally before sending them to the

The event batch is the event that Lambda sends to the function. It's a batch of records or messages compiled from the items that the event source mapping reads from a stream or queue. Batch size and other settings apply only to the event batch.

For streams, an event source mapping creates an iterator for each shard in the stream, and processes items in each shard in order. You can configure the event source mapping to read only new items that appear in the stream, or to start with older items. Processed items aren't removed from the stream, and other functions or consumers can process them.

By default, if your function returns an error, the entire batch is reprocessed until the function succeeds, or until the items in the batch expire. To ensure in-order processing, Lambda pauses processing for the affected shard until the error is resolved. You can configure the event source mapping to discard old events, restrict the number of retries, or process multiple batches in parallel. If you process multiple batches in parallel, in-order processing is still guaranteed for each partition key, but multiple partition keys in the same shard are processed simultaneously.

You can also configure the event source mapping to send an invocation record to another service when it discards an event batch. Lambda supports the following destinations for event source mappings.

  • Amazon SQS – An SQS queue.

  • Amazon SNS – An SNS topic.

The invocation record contains details about the failed event batch in JSON format.

The following example shows an invocation record for a Kinesis stream.

Example invocation Record

{ "requestContext": { "requestId": "c9b8fa9f-5a7f-xmpl-af9c-0c604cde93a5", "functionArn": "arn:aws:lambda:us-east-2:123456789012:function:myfunction", "condition": "RetryAttemptsExhausted", "approximateInvokeCount": 1 }, "responseContext": { "statusCode": 200, "executedVersion": "$LATEST", "functionError": "Unhandled" }, "version": "1.0", "timestamp": "2019-11-14T00:38:06.021Z", "KinesisBatchInfo": { "shardId": "shardId-000000000001", "startSequenceNumber": "49601189658422359378836298521827638475320189012309704722", "endSequenceNumber": "49601189658422359378836298522902373528957594348623495186", "approximateArrivalOfFirstRecord": "2019-11-14T00:38:04.835Z", "approximateArrivalOfLastRecord": "2019-11-14T00:38:05.580Z", "batchSize": 500, "streamArn": "arn:aws:kinesis:us-east-2:123456789012:stream/mystream" } }

Lambda also supports in-order processing for FIFO (first-in, first-out) queues, scaling up to the number of active message groups. For standard queues, items aren't necessarily processed in order. Lambda scales up to process a standard queue as quickly as possible. When an error occurs, Lambda returns batches to the queue as individual items and might process them in a different grouping than the original batch. Occasionally, the event source mapping might receive the same item from the queue twice, even if no function error occurred. Lambda deletes items from the queue after they're processed successfully. You can configure the source queue to send items to a dead-letter queue if they can't be processed.

For information about services that invoke Lambda functions directly, see Using AWS Lambda with other services.